This article is about the mythical city of gold. For other uses, see El Dorado (disambiguation).
South American myth
This Muisca raft figure is on display in the Gold Museum, Bogotá, Colombia.
El Dorado (pronounced[el doˈɾaðo], ; Spanish for "the golden one"), originally El Hombre Dorado ("The Golden Man") or El Rey Dorado ("The Golden King"), was the term used by the Spanish in the 16th century to describe a mythical tribal chief (zipa) of the Muisca people, an indigenous people of the Altiplano Cundiboyacense of Colombia, who, as an initiation rite, covered himself with gold dust and submerged in Lake Guatavita. The legends surrounding El Dorado changed over time, as it went from being a man, to a city, to a kingdom, and then finally to an empire.
A second location for El Dorado was inferred from rumors, which inspired several unsuccessful expeditions in the late s in search of a city called Manoa on the shores of Lake Parime or Parima. Two of the most famous of these expeditions were led by Sir Walter Raleigh. In pursuit of the legend, Spanish conquistadors and numerous others searched what is today Colombia, Venezuela, and parts of Guyana and northern Brazil, for the city and its fabulous king. In the course of these explorations, much of northern South America, including the Amazon River, was mapped. By the beginning of the 19th century, most people dismissed the existence of the city as a myth.
The legend of the Seven Cities of Gold (Seven Cities of Cibola) led to Francisco Vázquez de Coronado's expedition of across the New Mexico territory. This became mixed with the stories of El Dorado, which was sometimes said to be one of the seven cities.
Several literary works have used the name in their titles, sometimes as "El Dorado", and other times as "Eldorado".
Main articles: Muisca people and Muisca mythology
The Muisca occupied the highlands of Cundinamarca and Boyacá departments of Colombia in two migrations from outlying lowland areas, one starting c. BCE, and a second between BCE and BCE. At those times, other more ancient civilizations also flourished in the highlands. The Muisca Confederation was as advanced as the Aztec, Maya and Inca civilizations.
In the mythology of the Muisca, Mnya the Gold or golden color, represents the energy contained in the trinity of Chiminigagua, which constitutes the creative power of everything that exists. Chiminigagua is related to Bachué, Cuza, Chibchacum, Bochica, and Nencatacoa.
The tribal ceremony
The original narrative can be found in the rambling chronicle El Carnero of Juan Rodriguez Freyle. According to Freyle, the zipa of the Muisca, in a ritual at Lake Guatavita near present-day Bogotá, was said to be covered with gold dust, which he then washed off in the lake while his attendants threw objects made of gold, emeralds, and precious stones into the lake - such as tunjos.
In , Freyle wrote this account of the ceremony, addressed to the cacique or governor of Guatavita:[Note 1]
The ceremony took place on the appointment of a new ruler. Before taking office, he spent some time secluded in a cave, without women, forbidden to eat salt, or to go out during daylight. The first journey he had to make was to go to the great lagoon of Guatavita, to make offerings and sacrifices to the demon which they worshipped as their god and lord. During the ceremony which took place at the lagoon, they made a raft of rushes, embellishing and decorating it with the most attractive things they had. They put on it four lighted braziers in which they burned much moque, which is the incense of these natives, and also resin and many other perfumes. The lagoon was large and deep, so that a ship with high sides could sail on it, all loaded with an infinity of men and women dressed in fine plumes, golden plaques and crowns. As soon as those on the raft began to burn incense, they also lit braziers on the shore, so that the smoke hid the light of day.
At this time, they stripped the heir to his skin, and anointed him with a sticky earth on which they placed gold dust so that he was completely covered with this metal. They placed him on the raft and at his feet they placed a great heap of gold and emeralds for him to offer to his god. In the raft with him went four principal subject chiefs, decked in plumes, crowns, bracelets, pendants and ear rings all of gold. They, too, were naked, and each one carried his offering when the raft reached the centre of the lagoon, they raised a banner as a signal for silence.
The gilded Indian then [threw] out all the pile of gold into the middle of the lake, and the chiefs who had accompanied him did the same on their own accounts. After this they lowered the flag, which had remained up during the whole time of offering, and, as the raft moved towards the shore, the shouting began again, with pipes, flutes and large teams of singers and dancers. With this ceremony the new ruler was received, and was recognized as lord and king.
This is the ceremony that became the famous El Dorado, which has taken so many lives and fortunes.
There is also an account, titled The Quest of El Dorado, by poet-priest and historian of the Conquest Juan de Castellanos, who had served under Jiménez de Quesada in his campaign against the Muisca, written in the midth century but not published until 
An alien Indian, hailing from afar,
Who in the town of Quito did abide.
And neighbor claimed to be of Bogata,
There having come, I know not by what way,
Did with him speak and solemnly announce
A country rich in emeralds and gold.
Also, among (us) the things which them engaged,
A certain king he told of who, disrobed,
Upon a lake was wont, aboard a raft,
To make oblations, as himself had seen,
His regal form overspread with fragrant oil
On which was laid a coat of powdered gold
From sole of foot unto his highest brow,
Resplendent as the beaming of the sun.
Arrivals without end, he further said,
Were there to make rich votive offerings
Of golden trinkets and of emeralds rare
And divers other of their ornaments;
And worthy credence these things he affirmed;
The soldiers, light of heart and well content,
Then dubbed him El Dorado, and the name
By countless ways was spread throughout the world.
In his Historia general y natural de las Indias (, expanded in from his previously unpublished papers), Gonzalo Fernández de Oviedo y Valdés noted:
He went about all covered with powdered gold, as casually as if it were powdered salt. For it seemed to him that to wear any other finery was less beautiful, and that to put on ornaments or arms made of gold worked by hammering, stamping, or by other means, was a vulgar and common thing.
In the Muisca territories, there were a number of natural locations considered sacred, including lakes, rivers, forests and large rocks. People gathered here to perform rituals and sacrifices mostly with gold and emeralds. Important lakes were Lake Guatavita, Lake Iguaque, Lake Fúquene, Lake Tota, the Siecha Lakes, Lake Teusacá and Lake Ubaque.
From ritual to myth and metaphor
El Dorado is applied to a legendary story in which precious stones were found in fabulous abundance along with gold coins. The concept of El Dorado underwent several transformations, and eventually accounts of the previous myth were also combined with those of a legendary lost city. The resulting El Dorado myth enticed European explorers for two centuries. Among the earliest stories was the one told on his deathbed by Juan Martinez, a captain of munitions for Spanish adventurer Diego de Ordaz, who claimed to have visited the city of Manoa. Martinez had allowed a store of gunpowder to catch fire and was condemned to death, however his friends let him escape downriver in a canoe. Martinez then met with some local people who took him to the city:
The canoa [sic] was carried down the stream, and certain of the Guianians met it the same evening; and, having not at any time seen any Christian nor any man of that colour, they carried Martinez into the land to be wondered at, and so from town to town, until he came to the great city of Manoa, the seat and residence of Inga the emperor. The emperor, after he had beheld him, knew him to be a Christian, and caused him to be lodged in his palace, and well entertained. He was brought thither all the way blindfold, led by the Indians, until he came to the entrance of Manoa itself, and was fourteen or fifteen days in the passage. He avowed at his death that he entered the city at noon, and then they uncovered his face; and that he traveled all that day till night through the city, and the next day from sun rising to sun setting, ere he came to the palace of Inga. After that Martinez had lived seven months in Manoa, and began to understand the language of the country, Inga asked him whether he desired to return into his own country, or would willingly abide with him. But Martinez, not desirous to stay, obtained the favour of Inga to depart.
The fable of Juan Martinez was founded on the adventures of Juan Martin de Albujar, well known to the Spanish historians of the Conquest; and who, in the expedition of Pedro de Silva (), fell into the hands of the Caribs of the Lower Orinoco.
During the 16th and 17th centuries, Europeans, still fascinated by the New World, believed that a hidden city of immense wealth existed. Numerous expeditions were mounted to search for this treasure, all of which ended in failure. The illustration of El Dorado's location on maps only made matters worse, as it made some people think that the city of El Dorado's existence had been confirmed. The mythical city of El Dorado on Lake Parime was marked on numerous maps until its existence was disproved by Alexander von Humboldt during his Latin America expedition (–).[dubious discuss]
Meanwhile, the name of El Dorado came to be used metaphorically of any place where wealth could be rapidly acquired. It was given to El Dorado County, California, and to towns and cities in various states. It has also been anglicized to the single word Eldorado, and is sometimes used in product titles to suggest great wealth and fortune, such as the Cadillac Eldorado line of luxury automobiles.
El Dorado is also sometimes used as a metaphor to represent an ultimate prize or "Holy Grail" that one might spend one's life seeking. It could represent true love, heaven, happiness, or success. It is used sometimes as a figure of speech to represent something much sought after that may not even exist, or, at least, may not ever be found. Such use is evident in Edgar Allan Poe's poem "El Dorado." In this context, El Dorado bears similarity to other myths such as the Fountain of Youth and Shangri-la. The other side of the ideal quest metaphor may be represented by Helldorado, a satirical nickname given to Tombstone, Arizona (United States) in the s by a disgruntled miner who complained that many of his profession had traveled far to find El Dorado, only to wind up washing dishes in restaurants. The South African city Johannesburg is commonly interpreted as a modern-day El Dorado, due to the extremely large gold deposit found along the Witwatersrand on which it is situated.
Early search for gold in northern South America
Spanish conquistadores had noticed the native people's fine artifacts of gold and silver long before any legend of "golden men" or "lost cities" had appeared. The prevalence of such valuable artifacts, and the natives' apparent ignorance of their value, inspired speculation as to a plentiful source for them.
Prior to the time of the Spanish conquest of the Muisca and discovery of Lake Guatavita, a handful of expeditions had set out to explore the lowlands to the east of the Andes in search of gold, cinnamon, precious stones, and anything else of value. During the Klein-Venedig period in Venezuela (–), agents of the German Welser banking family (which had received a concession from Charles I of Spain) launched repeated expeditions into the interior of the country in search of gold, starting with Ambrosius Ehinger's first expedition in July 
Spanish explorer Diego de Ordaz, then governor of the eastern part of Venezuela known as Paria (named after Paria Peninsula), was the first European to explore the Orinoco river in –32 in search of gold. A veteran of Hernán Cortés's campaign in Mexico, Ordaz followed the Orinoco beyond the mouth of the Meta River but was blocked by the rapids at Atures. After his return he died, possibly poisoned, on a voyage back to Spain. After the death of Ordaz while returning from his expedition, the Crown appointed a new Governor of Paria, Jerónimo de Ortal, who diligently explored the interior along the Meta River between and In , he ordered captain Alonso de Herrera to move inland by the waters of the Uyapari River (today the town of Barrancas del Orinoco). Herrera, who had accompanied Ordaz three years before, explored the Meta River but was killed by the indigenous Achagua near its banks, while waiting out the winter rains in Casanare.
The search for El Dorado
Even before the conquest of the Aztec and Inca empires and the Muisca Confederation the Spanish collected vague hearsay about these polities and their riches. After the Inca Empire in Peru was conquered by Francisco Pizarro and its riches proved real, new rumours of riches reached the Spanish.
The earliest reference to an El Dorado-like kingdom occurred in during Ordaz's expedition when he was told of a kingdom called Meta that was said to exist beyond a mountain on the left bank of the Orinoco River. Meta was supposedly abundant in gold and ruled by a chief that only had one intact eye.
Between and , the German conquistadors Nikolaus Federmann and Georg von Speyer searched the Venezuelan lowlands, Colombian plateaus, Orinoco Basin and Llanos Orientales for El Dorado. Subsequently, Philipp von Hutten accompanied Von Speyer on a journey (–38) in which they reached the headwaters of the Rio Japura, near the equator. In Hutten led an exploring party of about men, mostly horsemen, from Coro on the coast of Venezuela in search of the Golden City. After several years of wandering, harassed by the natives and weakened by hunger and fever, he crossed the Rio Bermejo, and went on with a small group of around 40 men on horseback into Los Llanos, where they engaged in battle with a large number of Omaguas and Hutten was severely wounded. He led those of his followers who survived back to Coro in  On Hutten's return, he and a traveling companion, Bartholomeus VI. Welser, were executed in El Tocuyo by the Spanish authorities.
In , Sebastian de Benalcazar, a lieutenant of Francisco Pizarro, interrogated an Indian that had been captured at Quito. Luis Daza recorded that the Indian was a warrior while Antonio de Herrera y Tordesillas wrote that the Indian was an ambassador who had come to request military assistance from the Inca, unaware that they had already been conquered. The Indian told Benalcazar that he was from a kingdom of riches known as Cundinamarca far to the north where a zipa, or chief, covered himself in gold dust during ceremonies. Benalcazar set out to find the chief, reportedly saying "Lets go find that golden Indian!" (Spanish: ¡Vámos a buscar a este indio dorado!), eventually the chief became known to the Spaniards came to know as El Dorado. Benalcazar failed however to find El Dorado and eventually joined up with Federmann and Gonzalo Jimenez de Quesada and returned to Spain. It has been speculated that the land of wealth spoken of by the Indian was Arma, a kingdom whose inhabitants wore gold ornaments, which was eventually conquered by Pedro Cieza de Leon.
In Gonzalo Díaz de Pineda had led an expedition to the lowlands to the east of Quito and had found cinnamon trees but no rich empire.
Quesada brothers' expeditions
Main article: Spanish conquest of the Muisca
In , stories of El Dorado drew the Spanish conquistador Gonzalo Jimenez de Quesada and his army of men away from their mission to find an overland route to Peru and up into the Andean homeland of the Muisca for the first time. The southern Muisca settlements and their treasures quickly fell to the conquistadors in and On the Bogotá savanna, Quesada received reports from captured natives about a kingdom called Metza whose inhabitants built a temple dedicated to the sun and "keep in it an infinite quantity of gold and jewels, and live in stone houses, go about dressed and booted, and fight with lances and maces". Quesada believed this might have been El Dorado and decided to postpone his return to Santa Marta and continue his expedition for another year. After his brother Gonzalo had left for Spain in May , Spanish conquistador Hernán Pérez de Quesada set out a new expedition in September , leaving with Spanish soldiers and countless indigenous porters to explore the Llanos Orientales. One of his main captains on this journey was Baltasar Maldonado. Their expedition was unsuccessful and after reaching Quito, the troops returned to Santafe de Bogotá.
Pizarro and Orellana's discovery of the Amazon
See also: Amazon River §History
In , Gonzalo Pizarro, the younger half-brother of Francisco Pizarro, the Spanish conquistador who toppled the Incan Empire in Peru, was made the governor of the province of Quito in northern Ecuador. Shortly after taking lead in Quito, Gonzalo learned from many of the natives of a valley far to the east rich in both cinnamon and gold. He banded together soldiers and about natives in and led them eastward down the Rio Coca and Rio Napo. Francisco de Orellana accompanied Pizarro on the expedition as his lieutenant. Gonzalo quit after many of the soldiers and natives had died from hunger, disease, and periodic attacks by hostile natives. He ordered Orellana to continue downstream, where he eventually made it to the Atlantic Ocean. The expedition found neither cinnamon nor gold, but Orellana is credited with discovering the Amazon River (so named because of a tribe of female warriors that attacked Orellana's men while on their voyage).
Expeditions of Pedro de Ursúa and Lope de Aguirre
In , Basque conquistadorsPedro de Ursúa and Lope de Aguirre journeyed down the Marañón and Amazon Rivers, in search of El Dorado, with Spaniards and hundreds of natives; the actual goal of Ursúa was to send idle veterans from the Spanish conquest of the Inca Empire away, to keep them from trouble-making, using the El Dorado myth as a lure. A year later, Aguirre participated in the overthrow and killing of Ursúa and his successor, Fernando de Guzmán, whom he ultimately succeeded. He and his men reached the Atlantic (probably by the Orinoco River), destroying native villages of Margarita island and actual Venezuela. In Aguirre's expedition ended with his death in Barquisimeto, and in the years since then he has been treated by historians as a symbol of cruelty and treachery in the early history of colonial Spanish America.
Lake Guatavita gold
While the existence of a sacred lake in the Eastern Ranges of the Andes, associated with Indian rituals involving gold, was known to the Spaniards possibly as early as , its location was only discovered in by conquistador Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada while on an expedition to the highlands of the Eastern Ranges of the Andes in search of gold.
Conquistadores Lázaro Fonte and Hernán Perez de Quesada attempted (unsuccessfully) to drain the lake in using a "bucket chain" of labourers. After 3 months, the water level had been reduced by 3 metres, and only a small amount of gold was recovered, with a value of – pesos (approx. US$, today; a peso or piece of eight of the 15th century weighs oz of 93% pure silver).
A later more industrious attempt was made in , by Bogotá business entrepreneur Antonio de Sepúlveda. A notch was cut deep into the rim of the lake, which managed to reduce the water level by 20 metres, before collapsing and killing many of the labourers. A share of the findings—consisting of various golden ornaments, jewellery and armour—was sent to King Philip II of Spain. Sepúlveda's discovery came to approximately 12, pesos. He died a poor man, and is buried at the church in the small town of Guatavita.
In , Alexander von Humboldt made a visit to Guatavita, and on his return to Paris, calculated from the findings of Sepúlveda's efforts that Guatavita could offer up as much as $ million worth of gold.
In , the Company for the Exploitation of the Lagoon of Guatavita was formed and taken over by Contractors Ltd. of London, in a deal brokered by British expatriate Hartley Knowles. The lake was drained by a tunnel that emerged in the centre of the lake. The water was drained to a depth of about 4 feet of mud and slime. This made it impossible to explore, and when the mud had dried in the sun, it had set like concrete. Artifacts worth only about £ were found, and auctioned at Sotheby's of London. Some of these were donated to the British Museum. The company filed for bankruptcy and ceased activities in
In , the Colombian government designated the lake as a protected area. Private salvage operations, including attempts to drain the lake, are now illegal.
Antonio de Berrio's expeditions
The Spanish Governor of Trinidad, Antonio de Berrio (nephew of Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada), made three failed expeditions to look for El Dorado. Between and he carried out his first two expeditions, going through the wild regions of the Colombian plains and the Upper Orinoco. In he began his third expedition, ascending the Orinoco to reach the Caroní River with his own expeditionaries and another men under command of Domingo de Vera. In March , while he was waiting for supplies on Margarita Island, his entire force was taken captive by Walter Raleigh, who proceeded up the Orinoco in search of El Dorado, with Berrio as a guide. Berrio took them to the territories he had previously explored by himself years before. After several months Raleigh's expedition returned to Trinidad, and he released Berrio at the end of June on the coast of Cumaná in exchange for some English prisoners. His son Fernando de Berrío y Oruña (–) also made numerous expeditions in search of El Dorado.
Further information: Raleigh's El Dorado Expedition
Walter Raleigh's journey with Antonio de Berrio had aimed to reach Lake Parime in the highlands of Guyana (the supposed location of El Dorado at the time). He was encouraged by the account of Juan Martinez, believed to be Juan Martin de Albujar, who had taken part in Pedro de Silva's expedition of the area in , only to fall into the hands of the Caribs of the Lower Orinoco. Martinez claimed that he was taken to the golden city in blindfold, was entertained by the natives, and then left the city and couldn't remember how to return. Raleigh had set many goals for his expedition, and believed he had a genuine chance at finding the so-called city of gold. First, he wanted to find the mythical city of El Dorado, which he suspected to be an actual Indian city named Manõa. Second, he hoped to establish an English presence in the Southern Hemisphere that could compete with that of the Spanish. His third goal was to create an English settlement in the land called Guyana, and to try to reduce commerce between the natives and Spaniards.
In Raleigh sent his lieutenant, Lawrence Kemys, back to Guyana in the area of the Orinoco River, to gather more information about the lake and the golden city. During his exploration of the coast between the Amazon and the Orinoco, Kemys mapped the location of Amerindian tribes and prepared geographical, geological and botanical reports of the country. Kemys described the coast of Guiana in detail in his Relation of the Second Voyage to Guiana () and wrote that indigenous people of Guiana traveled inland by canoe and land passages towards a large body of water on the shores of which he supposed was located Manoa, Golden City of El Dorado.
Though Raleigh never found El Dorado, he was convinced that there was some fantastic city whose riches could be discovered. Finding gold on the riverbanks and in villages only strengthened his resolve. In , he returned to the New World on a second expedition, this time with Kemys and his son, Watt Raleigh, to continue his quest for El Dorado. However, Raleigh, by now an old man, stayed behind in a camp on the island of Trinidad. Watt Raleigh was killed in a battle with Spaniards and Kemys subsequently committed suicide. Upon Raleigh's return to England, King James ordered him to be beheaded for disobeying orders to avoid conflict with the Spanish. He was executed in
On 23 March , Robert Harcourt accompanied by his brother Michael and a company of adventurers, sailed for Guiana. On 11 May he arrived at the Oyapock River. Local people came on board, and were disappointed at the absence of Sir Walter Raleigh after he had famously visited during his exploration of the area in Harcourt gave them aqua vitae. He took possession in the king's name of a tract of land lying between the River Amazon and River Essequibo on 14 August, left his brother and most of his company to colonise it, and four days later embarked for England.
In early Sir Thomas Roe, on a mission to the West Indies for Henry Frederick, Prince of Wales, sailed his ton ship, the Lion's Claw, some kilometres (mi) up the Amazon, then took a party of canoes up the Waipoco (probably the Oyapock River) in search of Lake Parime, negotiating thirty-two rapids and traveling about km (mi) before they ran out of food and had to turn back.
In North and Harcourt, obtained letters patent under the great seal from Charles I, authorising them to form a company for "the Plantation of Guiana", North being named as deputy governor of the settlement. Short of funds, this expedition was fitted out, a plantation established in , and trade opened by North's endeavours.
In , two monks, Acana and Fritz, undertook several journeys to the lands of the Manoas, indigenous peoples living in western Guyana and what is now Roraima in northeastern Brazil. Although they found no evidence of El Dorado, their published accounts were intended to inspire further exploration.
In November , Nicholas Horstman, a German surgeon commissioned by the Dutch Governor of Guiana, traveled up the Essequibo River accompanied by two Dutch soldiers and four Indian guides. In April one of the Indian guides returned reporting that in Horstman had crossed over to the Rio Branco and descended it to its confluence with the Rio Negro. Horstman discovered Lake Amucu on the North Rupununi but found neither gold nor any evidence of a city.
In , Don Manuel Centurion, Governor of Santo Tomé de Guayana de Angostura del Orinoco in Venezuela, hearing a report from an Indian about Lake Parima, embarked on a journey up the Caura River and the Paragua River, causing the deaths of several hundred persons. His survey of the local geography, however, provided the basis for other expeditions starting in 
From to , Nicholas Rodriguez and Antonio Santos, two entrepreneurs employed by the Spanish Governors, set out on foot and Santos, proceeding by the Caroní River, the Paragua River, and the Pacaraima Mountains, reached the Uraricoera River and Rio Branco, but found nothing.
Between and , Alexander von Humboldt conducted an extensive and scientific survey of the Guyana river basins and lakes, concluding that a seasonally-flooded confluence of rivers may be what inspired the notion of a mythical Lake Parime, and of the supposed golden city on the shore, nothing was found. Further exploration by Charles Waterton () and Robert Schomburgk () confirmed Humboldt's findings.
Gold strikes and the extractive wealth of the rainforest
It appears today that the Muisca obtained their gold in trade, and while they possessed large quantities of it over time, no great store of the metal was ever accumulated.
By the mids, the Spanish silver strike at Potosí in Upper Peru (modern Bolivia) was producing unprecedented real wealth.
In , Queen Elizabeth I of England died, bringing to an end the era of Elizabethan adventurism. In , Sir Walter Raleigh, the great inspirer, was beheaded after returning from an expedition to Venezuela in search of El Dorado for an attack on a Spanish outpost.
In , bandeirantes in the south struck gold along a tributary of the São Francisco River in the highlands of State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The prospect of real gold overshadowed the illusory promise of "gold men" and "lost cities" in the vast interior of the north.
The gold mine at El Callao (Venezuela), started in , a few miles at south of Orinoco River, was for a time one of the richest in the world, and the goldfields as a whole saw over a million ounces exported between and  The immigrants who emigrated to the gold mines of Venezuela were mostly from the British Isles and the British West Indies.
The Orinoco Mining Arc (OMA), officially created on February 24, as the Arco Mining Orinoco National Strategic Development Zone, is an area rich in mineral resources that the Republic of Venezuela has been operating since ; occupies mostly the north of the Bolivar state and to a lesser extent the northeast of the Amazonas state and part of the Delta Amacuro state. It has 7, tons of reserves of gold, copper, diamond, coltan, iron, bauxite and other minerals.
A photograph taken from the International Space Station (ISS) in showed golden areas near the Amazon River. These were determined to be extensive illegal gold mining operations. Such photography and, especially, satellite surveys, have revealed the extent of the impact of these operations. They suggest the rate of forest loss more than tripled as gold prices rose in , largely driven by small, illegal mining operations that now account for most activity in the region. A team from the Carnegie Institution for Science in Stanford, California, has estimated, using satellite data and field surveys together, that mining covered fewer than 10, hectares in but had spread beyond 50, hectares by September 
See also: List of Muisca research institutes
In –, an expedition led by John Hemming of the Royal Geographical Society failed to uncover any evidence of the ancient city of Manoa on the island of Maracá in north-central Roraima. Members of the expedition were accused of looting historic artifacts but an official report of the expedition described it as "an ecological survey."
Evidence for the existence of Lake Parime
Main article: Lake Parime
Although it was dismissed in the 19th century as a myth, some evidence for the existence of a lake in northern Brazil has been uncovered. In Brazilian geologists Gert Woeltje and Frederico Guimarães Cruz along with Roland Stevenson, found that on all the surrounding hillsides a horizontal line appears at a uniform level approximately metres (ft) above sea level. This line registers the water level of an extinct lake which existed until relatively recent times. Researchers who studied it found that the lake's previous diameter measured kilometres (mi) and its area was about 80, square kilometres (31,sqmi). About years ago this giant lake began to drain due to tectonic movement. In June , a massive earthquake opened a bedrock fault, forming a rift or a graben that permitted the water to flow into the Rio Branco. By the early 19th century it had dried up completely.
Roraima's well-known Pedra Pintada is the site of numerous pictographs dating to the pre-Columbian era. Designs on the sheer exterior face of the rock were most likely painted by people standing in canoes on the surface of the now-vanished lake. Gold, which was reported to be washed up on the shores of the lake, was most likely carried by streams and rivers out of the mountains where it can be found today.
El Dorado in popular culture
- Eldorado, by Neil Young ()
- "El Dorado" by Ravi ()
- El Dorado, by The Jayhawks ()
- El Dorado, album by Shakira ()
- El Dorado, by Marillion ()
- El Dorado, by Exo (group) () album "EXODUS"
- ElDorado, a Japanese Visual Kei band
- El Dorado, by Death Cab for Cutie ()
- El Dorado, by Every Time I Die ()
- El Dorado, by Two Steps From Hell ()
- El Dorado, by Iron Maiden ()
- Eldorado, by Dave Rodgers ()
- El Dorado, by Aterciopelados ()
- Eldorado, by The Tragically Hip ()
- El Dorado, by John Adams ()
- Eldorado, by Komu Vnyz ()
- Eldorado, by Patrick O'Hearn ()
- El Dorado, by Restless Heart ()
- El Dorado, by Seikima-II ()
- El Dorado, by the March Violets ()
- El Dorado, by Agent Orange (band) ()
- Eldorado, by Goombay Dance Band ()
- Eldorado, album by Electric Light Orchestra ()
- Eldorado, by Sopor Aeternus & the Ensemble of Shadows ()
- Curse of Eldorado, album by Ghoultown ()
- El Dorado, by Stellar (musical artist) (Sid Banerjee) ()
- El Dorado by 24kGoldn ()
Voltaire's satire Candide describes a place called El Dorado, a geographically isolated utopia where the streets are covered with precious stones, there exist no priests, and all of the king's jokes are funny.
- ^Spanish original: "Era costumbre entre estos naturales que el que había de ser sucesor y heredero del señorío o cacicazgo de su tío, a quien heredaba, había de ayunar seis años metido en una cueva que tenían dedicada y señalada par esto, y que en todo este tiempo no había de tener parte con mujeres, ni comer carne, sal ni ají y otras cosas que les vedaban; y entre ellas que durante el ayuno no habían de ver el sol, sólo de noche tenían licencia para salir de la cueva y ver la luna y estrellas y recogerse antes que el sol los viese. Y cumplido este ayuno y ceremonias se metían en posesión del cacicazgo o señorío, y la primera jornada que habían de hacer era ir a la gran laguna de Guatavita a ofrecer y sacrificar al demonio (sic) que tenían por su dios y señor. La ceremonia que en esto había era que en aquella laguna se hacía una gran balsa de juncos, aderezábanla y adornábanla todo lo más vistoso que podían be, metían en ella cuatro braseros encendidos en que desde luego quemaban mucho moque, que es el sahumerio de estos naturales, y trementina, con otros muchos y diversos perfumes. Estaba a este tiempo toda la laguna en redondo, con ser muy grande, y hondable de tal manera que puede navegar en ella un navío de alto bordo, la cual estaba toda coronada de infinidad de indios e indias, con mucha plumería, chagualas y coronas de oro, con infinitos fuegos a la redonda; y luego que en la balsa comenzaba el sahumerio lo encendían en tierra, en tal manera, que el humo impedía la luz del día. A este tiempo desnudaban al heredero en carnes vivas y lo untaban con una tierra pegajosa y lo espolvoreaban con oro en polvo y molido, de tal manera que iba cubierto todo de este metal. Metíanle en la balsa, en la cual iba parado, y a los pies le ponían un gran montón de oro y esmeraldas para que ofreciese a su dios. Entraban con él en la balsa cuatro caciques, los más principales, sus sujetos, muy aderezados de plumería, coronas de oro, brazales y chagualas y orejeras de oro, también desnudos, y cada cual llevaba su ofrecimiento. En partiendo la balsa de tierra comenzaban los instrumentos, cornetas, fotutos y otros instrumentos, y con esto una gran vocería que atronaba montes y valles y duraba hasta que la balsa llegaba al medio de la laguna, de donde, con una bandera, se hacía señal para el silencio. Hacía el indio dorado su ofrecimiento echando todo el oro que llevaba a los pies en el medio de la laguna, y los demás caciques que iban con él y le acompañaban hacían lo propio, lo cual acabado abatían la bandera, que en todo el tiempo que gastaban en el ofrecimiento la tenían levantada, y partiendo la balsa a tierra comenzaba la grita, gaitas y fotutos con muy largos corros de bailes y danzas a su modo, con la cual ceremonia recibían al nuevo electo y quedaba conocido por señor y príncipe. De esta ceremonia se tomó aquel nombre tan celebrado del Dorado, que tantas vidas ha costado."
- ^ abcdeHumboldt, Alexander von, Personal Narrative of Travels to the Equinoctial Regions of America During the Years , (chapter 25). Henry G. Bohn, London,
- ^ abOcampo López, Javier. Grandes culturas indígenas de América [Great indigenous cultures of the Americas], Plaza & Janes Editores Colombia S.A..
- ^(in Spanish)Chiminichagua, o el ser supremo
- ^Freyle, Juan Rodríguez (). Conquista y descubrimiento del Nuevo Reino de Granada [El Carnero].
- ^Castellanos, Juan de (). "Parte III, Canto II". Elejias de Varones Ilustres de Indias. Madrid.
- ^Fernández de Oviedo y Valdés, Gonzalo () . José Amador de los Ríos (ed.). Historia general y natural de las Indias. Miguel de Cervantes Virtual Library. Madrid: La Real Academia de la Historia. Retrieved
- ^Sir Walter Raleigh, The Discoverie of the Large, Rich, and Bewtiful Empyre of Guiana (; repr., Amsterdam: Theatrum Orbis Terrarum, )
- ^ abJohn Hemming, Red Gold: The Conquest of the Brazilian Indians, , Harvard University Press, ISBN
- ^de Gandía , p.
- ^de Gandía , p.
- ^Wilson, James Grant; Fiske, John, eds. (). "Spire, Georg von". in Appletons' Cyclopædia of American Biography. New York: D. Appleton.
- ^"Hutten, Philipp (Felipe Dutre, de Utre, de Ure), Conquistador, – in Venezuela." Deutsche Biographie
- ^John Hemming, The search for El Dorado pg
- ^de Gandía , p.
- ^Beatriz Pastor; Sergio Callau (1 January ). Lope de Aguirre y la rebelión de los marañones. Parkstone International. pp.– ISBN.
- ^William A. Douglass; Jon Bilbao (). Amerikanuak: Basques in the New World. University of Nevada Press. p. ISBN.
- ^Elena Mampel González; Neus Escandell Tur (1 January ). Lope de Aguirre: Crónicas, . Edicions Universitat Barcelona. p. ISBN.
- ^Gabriel Sánchez Sorondo (1 January ). Historia oculta de la conquista de América. Ediciones Nowtilus S.L. p. ISBN.
- ^Hemming, John. "The Draining of Lake Guatavita"(PDF). SA Explorers. Archived(PDF) from the original on 12 August Retrieved 15 February
- ^"Guatavita, Lake". British Museum Collection. Trustees of the British Museum. Retrieved 15 February
- ^Bell, Robert (). Lives of the British Admirals: Robert Devereux. Sir Walter Raleigh Volume 4. Longman. pp.–
- ^Sir Walter Ralegh's Discoverie of Guiana, Hakluyt Society, Ashgate Publishing, Ltd., ISBN
- ^Dotson, Eliane. "Lake Parime and the Golden City"(PDF). Wash Map Society. p.4. Retrieved 15 February
- ^"Raleigh's Second Expedition to Guiana". Guyana. Retrieved 15 February
- ^ abLaughton, John Knox (–). "Kemys, Lawrence (DNB00)". Dictionary of National Biography. 30.
- ^"Sir Walter Raleigh". Learn NC. UNC School of Education. Archived from the original on 6 February Retrieved 15 February
- ^Drye, Willie. "El Dorado Legend Snared Sir Walter Raleigh". National Geographic. National Geographic Society. Archived from the original on 18 November Retrieved 15 February
- ^ abFrom Robert Harcourt (explorer): Goodwin, Gordon (). "Harcourt, Robert". In Stephen, Leslie; Lee, Sidney (eds.). Dictionary of National Biography. 24. London: Smith, Elder & Co.
- ^Cardoso, Alírio (). "A conquista do Maranhão e as disputas atlânticas na geopolítica da União Ibérica ()". Revista Brasileira de História. 31 (61): – doi/S
- ^Dean, James Seay (). Tropics Bound: Elizabeth's Seadogs on the Spanish Main. The History Press. ISBN.
- ^Williamson, James Alexander (). English colonies in Guiana and on the Amazon, . Oxford: Clarendon Press. p.
- ^Lane-Poole, Stanley (–). "Roe, Thomas (DNB00)". Dictionary of National Biography. 49.
- ^Brown, Michael J. (13 January ). Rowse, A. L. (ed.). Itinerant Ambassador: The Life of Sir Thomas Roe. University Press of Kentucky. p. ISBN. JSTORj.cttj7sv.
- ^Durivage, Francis Alexander (). A popular cyclopedia of history: ancient and modern, forming a copious historical dictionary of celebrated institutions, persons, places and things Case, Tiffany and Burnham. p.
- ^Harris, C. A.; Abraham, John; De Villiers, Jacob (). Storm Van's Gravesande: The Rise of British Guiana, Compiled from his Works. Hakluyt Society.
- ^Pierce, Edward M. (). The Cottage Cyclopedia of History and Biography: A Copious Dictionary of Memorable Persons, Events, Places and Things, with Notices of the Present State of the Principal Countries and Nations of the Known World, and a Chronological View of American History,. Case, Lockwood. pp.
- ^Waterton, Charles (). Moore, Norman (ed.). Wanderings in South America. London, Paris & Melbourne: Cassell & Co, Ltd. p. via gutenberg.org.
- ^Rivière, Peter (). The Guiana Travels of Robert Schomburgk, Explorations on behalf of the Royal Geographical Society, . Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. p. ISBN.
- ^"Arco Minero del Orinoco: Decreto N° , mediante el cual se crea la Zona de Desarrollo Estratégico Nacional"(PDF). Gaceta Oficial de la Republica Bolivarinara de Venezuela. 40 (). March Archived from the original(PDF) on 20 January
- ^Egaña, Carlos, El Arco Minero del Orinoco: ambiente, rentismo y violencia al sur de Venezuela
- ^Cano Franquiz, María Laura. "Arco Minero del Orinoco vulnera fuentes vitales y diversidad cultural en Venezuela". La Izquierda Diario (in Spanish). Retrieved 3 July
- ^"NASA's stunning photo showing 'Gold Rivers' in Peruvian Amazon has a grim backstory". www.timesnownews.com. Retrieved
- ^"Illicit gold rush in Peruvian Amazon". Nature. (): October doi/b. ISSN
- ^Asner, G. P.; Llactayo, W.; Tupayachi, R.; Luna, E. R. (12 November ). "Elevated rates of gold mining in the Amazon revealed through high-resolution monitoring". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. (46): – BibcodePNASA. doi/pnas PMC PMID
- ^Videla, Rafael (1 January ). "El Dorado: El Gran Descubrimiento de Roland Stevenson". Alerta Austral (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 5 August Retrieved 15 February
- ^Hemming, John; Bowles, Steve; Watson, Fiona (). "Maracá Rainforest Project Brazil "(PDF). Royal Geographical Society. Archived(PDF) from the original on 5 August Retrieved 15 February
- ^Stevenson, Roland. "Parime: Finding the Legendary Lake". Netium. Retrieved 15 February
- ^Maziero, Dalton Delfini. "El Dorado Em busca dos antigos mistérios Amazônicos". Arqueologiamericana (in Portuguese). Retrieved 15 February
- ^Veloso, Alberto V. (September ). "On the footprints of a major Brazilian Amazon earthquake". Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências. 86 (3): – doi/
- ^Shea, Jeff (March ). "The March Paragua River Expedition: Penetration into The Meseta de Ichún of Venezuela"(PDF). Explorers Club Report #60. p. Retrieved 15 February
- ^Fonseca, J. A. (7 September ). "A Misteriosa Pedra Pintada (Roraima)". Moiseslime (in Portuguese). WordPress. Retrieved 15 February
- ^"Significant gold deposits in Roraima Basin – study". Stabroek News. March 22, Archived from the original on 28 January Retrieved 15 February
- ^Ashton, Kimberly (17 December ). "'It Is Wildfire': Berklee Alum on How TikTok Is Reshaping the Industry". www.berklee.edu. Berklee. Retrieved 29 May
- ^"The Search for El Dorado". IGN. Ziff Davis, LLC. 13 November Retrieved 22 September
- ^"Gold and Bones". IGN. Ziff Davis, LLC. 1 May Retrieved 22 September
- Ocampo López, Javier. Grandes culturas indígenas de América – Great indigenous cultures of the Americas, 1– Plaza & Janes Editores Colombia S.A..
- de Gandía, Enrique (). "Capítulo VII: El Dorado". Historia crítica de los mitos de la conquista americana (in Spanish). Buenos Aires: Juan Roldán y Cía.
- Hemming, John (). The Search for El Dorado. E. P. Dutton. ISBN.
- Hemming, John. Red Gold: The Conquest of the Brazilian Indians, . Harvard University Press.
- Bandelier, A. F. A.. The Gilded Man, El Dorado.
- Rodriguez Freyle, Juan. El Carnero: Conquista y descubrimiento del Nuevo Reino de Granada.
- Hagen, Victor Wolfgang von. The Gold of El Dorado: The Quest for the Golden Man.
- Naipaul, V.S.. The Loss of El Dorado. André Deutsch.
- Nicholl, Charles. The Creature in the Map: A Journey to El Dorado.
- Zerda, Liborio. (). El Dorado.
List of dragons in games
Shadowy form, Explosive skull
Cree Summer, Mae Whitman, Christina Ricci, Tobie LaSalandra, Erica Lindbeck, Felicia Day
Cynder is a former servant of Malefor in both versions, but the result of her corruption results in different effects on her. In Legend of Spyro, she gains control over shadows, poison, fear, and wind, but in Skylanders, she becomes an Undead elemental, capable of using spectral lightning, summoning ghosts, and turning into a shadow form.
- Spotify playlist names
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Taken from the "Tips and Tricks" post in the game's Kongregate forums found here with permission from the author.
When should I travel?
It is recommended that you do not travel except when you can hit your next mark. The two exceptions to this guideline is that you should travel around and M on your way to the and 6M marks, respectively. The reasoning behind this is that it is easier to get to and 6M if your effective production rates are multiplied by 5x and ~4x by travelling in between marks instead of going for a 20x and 15x boost.
What does completing a trial do?
Completing a single trial increases the gold bonus for that stat by 1% per Attribute Level. Dexterity grants a bonus of % per Attribute Level. For example, a successful Intelligence trial at 10 Intelligence will improve your gold bonus from Intelligence (and therefore increase the experience bonus from Quick Minds) by 10%. However, passing 10 trials in a single stat will reward you with one crystal.
How do I get crystals?
1) Complete trials (this is very easy, you shouldn't use real money. After a few days in game (5+) you have enough crystals for everything you need)
2) Buy them with Kreds
3) Find the secret
What is the best way to spend AP points?
There is no single best way to spend AP points in the current version of the game. In the earliest versions, Dexterity had an obvious advantage over all of the others. Now that the attributes are more or less equal to one another, let me go ahead and give a quick rundown of each attribute and then allow you to decide what you should focus on.
Strength: The Power skills unlocked at levels 5, 15, and 25 are only beneficial to players at higher levels (20+). At 5 Strength, the player needs a total equipment level of to receive a % bonus to the gold bonus derived from the Strength attribute. Though this is a fantastic bonus to players with + total equipment levels, this will not really benefit those who are still in the earlier stages of the game. It is in your best interest to avoid leveling Strength until you are well above total equipment level as other attribute skills will benefit you far greater earlier in the game.
Intelligence: The Quick Mind skills at 5, 15, and 25 are very effective for players of all playstyles and stages of the game. You should prioritize getting to 5 Intelligence as it will add a +% bonus to EXP gain that gets stronger as you successfully complete Intelligence trials. Getting to 5 Intelligence earlier will allow you to benefit more from the trial boosts, therefore you will want to aim for 5 Intelligence before reaching Level The Master Engineer skills at 10, 20, and 30 are still not that great for accelerating through the game as the amount of ore production it provides is still incredibly weak. I advise you not to push past 5 Intelligence until much, much later in the game (35+) as the EXP bonus from 15 Intelligence is just not worth skipping out on the Level 5 and 10 skills from other attributes.
Dexterity: The Perception skill line unlocked at 5, 15, and 25 Dexterity are of the most effective in the game. Dexterity 5 is essentially a x multiplier to the gold ore found in the mine (20% chance for 10x and the 80% chance for 1x is effectively (10) + (1) = x to gold ore on average), which is where a majority of your gold income comes from. For this reason, players of all playstyles will want to prioritize 5 Dexterity to the same degree as 5 Intelligence- both are very important skills and, if achieved by player level 10, will benefit the player significantly in the long run. Idle players will see diminished returns with leveling Dexterity past 5, so this is where I recommend you stop if you are utilizing an idle build. Active players will see immense benefits through leveling Dexterity to
Agility: There’s a bit of a controversy as to how much the skills from Agility benefit active playstyles, but I am under the impression that they help all playstyles significantly. You may want to avoid leveling Agility at all, or at least not past 5 Agility, if you are an active player as it currently undetermined the degree to which 5+ Agility will benefit you. That being said, the Agility skill tree is incredibly important for idle players. After idle players get 5 points into Intelligence and Dexterity, I highly suggest dumping the remainder of your attribute points into Agility until you can benefit from the Power skill at 5 Strength. Dash, Sprint, Accelerate, Give Me the Box, and Mining Expertise III can combo with one another, which makes Agility so powerful.
Zeeeeeej's build guidelines:
Idle build: 5/5/5/ALL. Push for 5 points into Dexterity, then go for 5 points into Intelligence (or reverse the order depending on what you personally think would benefit you most, I have no data to support one method or the other). Start levelling Agility until your total equipment level is at least and then level to 5 Strength, though you may want to wait until you are closer to or total equipment level before doing this as it may be better to keep pushing Agility here. Keep leveling Agility from this point on. Play with Strength a little bit if you feel like it: Picking up 10 Strength somewhere past player level 30 might be beneficial, but it is hard to determine if it would be more beneficial to keep spending the points in Agility. Pushing for another 10 points into Intelligence for Quick Minds II is not a great choice in idle playstyles as doubling your EXP gain from Intelligence’s gold bonus again is most likely not as effective as placing those 10 points into Agility. Same goes for Dexterity- the idle player will not benefit from Stamina regeneration whatsoever and Precision II just doesn’t compensate for the lack of levels in Agility and lack of an effective Level 10 skill from an attribute.
Active build: 5+/5+/20/0 or 5+/5+/20+/5+. Your first priority is getting to Dexterity Level: You are severely limited by stamina regeneration in the beginning of the game and the No Wasted Moves skill unlocked with 10 Dexterity will effectively double your progress rate. From here I strongly suggest dumping 5 points into Intelligence to grab Quick Mind I. You’ll probably want to start aiming for 20 Dexterity at this point, but be sure to grab 5 Strength as soon as your total equipment level is in the range. You'll want 20 Dexterity for more gold gains through Precision I and II, a % chance to pass Dexterity trials at Level 18 (making your effective rate of passing ANY trial roll to be 25%), and an additional boost to your stamina regeneration. From here you can start focusing on whatever you want as the upgrades at this point in the active playstyle all have specific strengths and weaknesses that cannot be compared definitively until the formulas are more understood. All Strength skills benefit you a lot, but the increased smash chance might actually decrease Smash II and III chances depending on how the game handles random events. Quick Minds II is great, but you will receive no tangible benefit from Master Engineering and the lack of an effective Level 10 attribute skill is not desirable in my opinion. Getting to 25 Dexterity for Precision III will help, but those 5 points might have been better spent into Str/Int/Agi. And, of course, there is the question as to the efficacy of Agility with active builds. Go for whatever you feel is best. As the meta develops, I will be happy to report my findings here as well as the general consensus.
In which order should I upgrade my equipment?
The general guideline I follow is to keep all equipment around the same price to next level. Your hammer becomes the highest leveled piece of equipment and the necklace/belt become the least leveled this way. Once you are nearing , , for all pieces of equipment you are going to want to stop focusing on the pieces that have already reached the requirement for the next set. Start focusing on the next piece of equipment to hit the requirement and occasionally level your hammer when you can afford the next 10 levels in only a few seconds of gameplay.
What is a good encounter?
Simply put, anything that isn't a cross roads or dead end is a good encounter. Upgrade the belt to level to improve the good encounter chance to %. This noticeably will improve your progress rate, therefore Belt is a good thing to push for when your equipment is in the range.
What perk should I get at level 10/20/30?
- Level Third Eye if active, Tranquility if idle.
- Level Fleetfooted if active, Third Eye if idle.
- Level Give Me the Box if active or idle. Reset your perks if active and replace Fleetfooted with something like Built to Dig, Treasure Hunter, or Speed of Light as the additional 1 stamina/sec is not as beneficial here as you most likely have 20 Dexterity at this point.
Third Eye is a must have for all builds as you will only havehalf of the total gold production possible without it. Tranquility is necessary for idle builds to be able to compare to active builds and it does not benefit active players. Fleetfooted is a great choice for active builds as it increases active gains by approximately 33% or 50% depending on their Stamina regeneration. Additionally, no other perk compares to the benefit given by Fleetfooted at level 20 for active users. Third Eye is the Level 20 choice for idle players as the double gold production is considerably more important than doubling ore production through Harmony and is almost certainly better than increasing Dash and Sprint chances by % and 50%, respectively. Give Me the Box seems to be the best perk available to Level 30 players of all playstyles as getting 10 steps per treasure is a significantly strong boost to the overall speed of the game. Note: Depending on how random events (i.e., Smash) are handled by the game code, Built to Dig (+20% Smash I chance) may decrease your Smash II and III chances. Until this is confirmed, please be wary that you may be slightly harming your optimal progression by selecting Built to Dig.
How do I keep progressing once I reach the 6M mark?
Getting to 6M distance is the last mark that is included in the current version of the game at this time of writing. Once you get here, you can keep playing normally to increase your distance, and thus progression, by whatever you want. I personally travelled again around 36M total distance to apply an effective 6x multiplier to my progress. From this point on, your progress will be very slow. Keep completing trials to farm crystals, save up for the two 50 crystal items in the Store. Once your progress has come to a relative halt, you can try farming trial bonuses to improve your attribute multipliers. Completing trials makes the gold bonuses gained from attribute points increase slightly and the boosted bonuses will keep after using an AP reset item. You would ideally be level 36 before you begin this grind so you are able to have two attribute points at level 18 (for a % chance of passing a trial). Just let your game run and allow your two Level 18 attribute points to build up the bonus and earn you crystals. Let this continue until you have earned 15 crystals from completing trials or until you are satisfied with the bonus that only a few points in that attribute will give you upon reset. Rinse and repeat until you have ridiculously high multipliers, reset your attributes one last time, and allocate them according to your preffered playstyle. You should now be able to push for the next x multiplier from distance.
- 2 Gift of Blood
- 2 Gift of Venom
- 2 Gift of Totems
- 2 Gift of Dust
- 2 Gift of Claws
- 2 Gift of Scales
- 2 Gift of Bones
- 2 Gift of Fangs
- ~ Mystic Coins
- ~ Globs of Ectoplasm
- ~ Obsidian Shards
(,or 6, Fractal Relicsor Laurelsor 11, Bandit Crests)
- ~ Crystalsor ~ Philosopher's Stones
(cost of either: Spirit Shards)
- Gift of Glory
- Gift of Battle
- Gift of War
- Cube of Stabilized Dark Energy
- total, bought from Miyani or Mystic Forge Attendant. Need Scholar of Secrets Mastery.
- Requires Weaponsmith to make.
- Tribute to Friendship
(1, Lumps of AurilliumorAirship PartsorLey Line CrystalsorUnbound MagicorTrade ContractsorVolatile Magic)
- Mystic Curio
Requires Weaponsmith, Artificer, orHuntsman to make.
3, (Intricate Totemsor Large Bonesor Large Clawsor Large Fangsor Large Scalesor Potent Venom Sacsor Vials of Potent Blood)
1, Mithril Ingots
1, Elder Wood Planks
- 2, Mithril Ingots
- 1, Elder Wood Planks
- Recipe cost: 10, bought from Miyani
- Requires Weaponsmith to make.
- Orichalcum Ingots
- Mithril Ingots
- Darksteel Ingots
- Platinum Ingots
- Gift of the Fleet
- Gift of Tarir
- Gift of the Chak
- Gift of the Jungle
- Gift of the Itzel
- Gift of the Nuhoch
- Gift of the Exalted
- Gift of Gliding
- Spirit Shards
- Crystalline Ore
- Globs of Ectoplasm
- Amalgamated Gemstones
- Gift of the Oasis
- Gift of the Highlands
- Gift of the Riverlands
- Gift of the Desolation
- Spirit of the Raptor
- Spirit of the Springer
- Spirit of the Skimmer
- Spirit of the Jackal
- Spirit Shards
- 25,Trade Contractsor Elegy Mosaicsor 1,Trade Contracts
- Amalgamated Gemstones
- Obsidian Shards
- Globs of Ectoplasm
- Crystalline Ingots
Idle wiki journey legendary
Idle War Legendary Heroes is a mobile idle game by IDLE GAME. Read on for Idle War Redemption code wiki new and working gift codes to redeem
Idle War Redemption Code Wiki: October ⇓
We provide the fastest/full coverage and regular updates on the latest working Idle War Redemption Code Wiki October The following Idle War redemption code wiki shares the latest list of working code available to redeem awesome gift rewards:
HarvestMoon: NEW! Redeem this redemption code and receive in-game items(Expires October 31st, )=. Copy this gift redemption code:HarvestMoon
EarlyAutumn : Redeem this code and get the reward (Expires on September 30th, ). Copy this gift redemption code:EarlyAutumn
Idle War Codes Redemption Codes⇓
- HarvestMoon: Redeem this redemption code and receive in-game items(Expires October 31st, )
- EarlyAutumn: Redeem this redemption code and receive in-game items(Expires September 30th, )
- SummerParty: Redeem this redemption code and receive in-game items(Expires September 1st, )
- Midsummer: Redeem this redemption code and receive in-game items(Expires August 1st, )
Idle War codes are time-limited; these gift codes expire after a few days, so you should redeem them as soon as possible and claim the rewards to progress further the game. We keep an eye on the new valid codes for this game title, so we recommend you to visit this page regularly.
To avoid any gift code error, please make sure that you enter the redemption code in the game as we have displayed in the list we have listed above, including the special characters and letter case (capital & small letters).
As we have mentioned above, the redeem codes will work for only a specific time period. Below, we have shared all the expired codes, you can try redeeming these expired codes and see if they work for you:
- ForChildren: Redeem this redemption code and receive in-game items(Expires July 1st, )
- MayDay: Redeem this redemption code and receive in-game items
- ApriltheWise: Redeem this redemption code and receive in-game items
- IW1stBday : Redeem this redemption code and receive in-game items(Expires on April 1st, )
- RomanceinIW : Redeem this redemption code and receive in-game items(Expired)
How To Redeem Idle War Redemption Code?
To redeem the Idle War redemption code, you need to follow these simple steps:
Step 1.) Open Idle War Legendary Heroes on your mobile device
Step 2.) Finish the tutorials and head to the lobby/games main screen
Step 3.) On the upper-left corner, tap hero/character icon/avatar frame
Step 4.) A player profile screen will appear when you tap the character icon in the top-left
Step 5.) Look for the redemption code option and tap it
Step 6.) Enter the redemption code and get the reward
So this would be all in this post on Idle War Redemption Code: new and working gift codes to redeem. Got a new redemption code? Comment below.
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Idle War Legendary Heroes Game Description:
HEROES WANTED! YOU ARE WANTED!
Idle War: Legendary Heroes Early Access Available Now!
Be the first to experience a whole new 3D Idle RPG fantasy game world!
Travel to the magic land of mighty gods, wicked evils, mysterious creatures and ancient races, Start your own journey and immerse yourself in this Norse Myths adventure to bring back balance amidst the chaos and fight alongside your guild for glory and the Aírkns Stone.
🎰Try Your Luck In The Gacha Gameplay & Summon Hundreds Of Unique Heroes At Your Service!
More than customizable heroes from 6 different factions are ready to join your team! Recruit epic heroes in the Summon Hall! Specific animation & voiceovers will bring you immersive face-to-face experience with your favorite characters! Level them up, upgrade their power and reveal their special skills!
⏳STRESS-FREE Idle Battle Gameplay – Gaining Has Never Been This Easy, IT’S ALL AUTO, EVEN AFK!
Play at your own pace without the restriction of space and time! Simply assemble your strongest team, sit back and relax. Without a single tap or click, your elite idle champions will fight for you from day till dawn, bringing you Gold, Materials, Gears and ALL THE RESOURCES IN THE WORLD to help you advance! You will be making progress ALL THE TIME! Even if you’re offline!
🎮Infinite Strategy Variations To Explore!
Adjust your hero lineup and develop better formation strategies to counter your opponent in the battle, Make the most out of hero faction bonuses and make sure that heroes in your squad can make great combos with their ultimates! Your Heroes will be stronger than ever with you as their commander!
🎯More Dynamics Than Just Idle!
Over stages for you to overcome! Battle through the Sunset Forest, Silent Graveyard, Ancient Ruins, and more fantasy biomes alongside legendary heroes! Rally towards the Crusade packed with Board Game & Roguelike elements! Climb up the Dark Tower shrouded by shadow and checkout what strategies other players are using through their battle replay; Craft and Forge legendary gears in the smithy and arm your Warriors with the sharpest blade; Clear the Raids & slay evil dragons in dungeons as much for extra gains! More attractive content coming every week for you to discover!
⚔️Fight For Your Allies!
Recruit active players around the world into your guild and manage to bring the guild to its glory! Be each other’s backbone and embrace whatever may come! Numerous heroic guild bosses await you and your allys challenge. Don’t forget to strengthen your team’s offense and defense by proceeding on multiple Mastery trees with the guild medals!
🥇Show Your Power On The Global Leaderboard!
Turn in your Arena Tickets and duel with active idle gamers around the world! Earn huge rewards by the end of each season for ranking on top of the ladder! Be the fastest on progressing forward in the campaign hall and dark tower to show other players your secret magic code on defeating mobs! No matter you’re a master of PVP or PVE, there is always a spot for you to spread your fame and win others’ respect.
🏆Rewarding Trophy System Fueling Your Motivation!
A great number of achievements for you to complete while hinting you the shortcut to succeed! Earn diamonds, artifacts and more as a bonus when you hit these milestones!
🤔️Please dont hesitate to contact us at [emailprotected] for any question.🤔️
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Idle War: Legendary Heroes is free to download and play. Some in-app items can also be purchased for real money. In-app purchases can be disabled through your device’s settings.
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Would climb on top of her mother, but instead he sat on the bed and lubricated his penis abundantly, sat Anna with his back on him The penis was inserted into the back hole, Anna was more experienced in such caresses and calmly took the penis there. - Take that vibrator, on the edge of the bed, Victor waited while she doubtfully stares at a large twisted thing with a head covered with numerous plump twigs.
And having the same smaller appendage Sui. Do not be afraid. It is a great effort, and not to say that even Anna's moist vagina was pleasant.
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I said to Nyashka, while I myself was thinking, lighting a cigarette, what should I. Do with Kostya. It's a pity, of course, to leave the guy, but apparently I will have to, I only wanted to love, Nyasha, and. Only his penis was required from Kostya, the love that I had for him at first had already passed, now I loved only his wife and me besides her nobody else is needed.