Molecular weight of Ca(OH)2
Molar mass of Ca(OH)2 = 74.09268 g/mol
This compound is also known as Calcium Hydroxide.
Convert grams Ca(OH)2 to moles or moles Ca(OH)2 to grams
Molecular weight calculation:
40.078 + (15.9994 + 1.00794)*2
|Element||Symbol||Atomic Mass||# of Atoms||Mass Percent|
In chemistry, the formula weight is a quantity computed by multiplying the atomic weight (in atomic mass units) of each element in a chemical formula by the number of atoms of that element present in the formula, then adding all of these products together.
The atomic weights used on this site come from NIST, the National Institute of Standards and Technology. We use the most common isotopes. This is how to calculate molar mass (average molecular weight), which is based on isotropically weighted averages. This is not the same as molecular mass, which is the mass of a single molecule of well-defined isotopes. For bulk stoichiometric calculations, we are usually determining molar mass, which may also be called standard atomic weight or average atomic mass.
Formula weights are especially useful in determining the relative weights of reagents and products in a chemical reaction. These relative weights computed from the chemical equation are sometimes called equation weights.
Finding molar mass starts with units of grams per mole (g/mol). When calculating molecular weight of a chemical compound, it tells us how many grams are in one mole of that substance. The formula weight is simply the weight in atomic mass units of all the atoms in a given formula.
Using the chemical formula of the compound and the periodic table of elements, we can add up the atomic weights and calculate molecular weight of the substance.
A common request on this site is to convert grams to moles. To complete this calculation, you have to know what substance you are trying to convert. The reason is that the molar mass of the substance affects the conversion. This site explains how to find molar mass.
If the formula used in calculating molar mass is the molecular formula, the formula weight computed is the molecular weight. The percentage by weight of any atom or group of atoms in a compound can be computed by dividing the total weight of the atom (or group of atoms) in the formula by the formula weight and multiplying by 100.
Inorganic compound of formula Ca(OH)2
|Other names |
3D model (JSmol)
|E number||E526 (acidity regulators, ...)|
|Molar mass||74.093 g/mol|
|Density||2.211 g/cm3, solid|
|Melting point||580 °C (1,076 °F; 853 K) (loses water, decomposes)|
Solubility in water
Solubility product (Ksp)
|Basicity (pKb)||1.37 (first OH−), 2.43 (second OH−) [clarification needed]|
Magnetic susceptibility (χ)
Refractive index (nD)
|P3m1 No. 164|
a = 0.35853 nm, c = 0.4895 nm
Std enthalpy of
|Safety data sheet||See: data page|
|GHS Signal word||Danger|
GHS hazard statements
|H314, H318, H335, H402|
GHS precautionary statements
|P261, P280, P305+351+338|
|NFPA 704 (fire diamond)|
|Lethal dose or concentration (LD, LC):|
LD50 (median dose)
|7340 mg/kg (oral, rat) |
7300 mg/kg (mouse)
|NIOSH (US health exposure limits):|
|TWA 15 mg/m3 (total) 5 mg/m3 (resp.)|
|TWA 5 mg/m3|
IDLH (Immediate danger)
|Supplementary data page|
|Refractive index (n),|
Dielectric constant (εr), etc.
|UV, IR, NMR, MS|
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
|Y verify (what is YN ?)|
Calcium hydroxide (traditionally called slaked lime) is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula Ca(OH)2. It is a colorless crystal or white powder and is produced when quicklime (calcium oxide) is mixed or slaked with water. It has many names including hydrated lime, caustic lime, builders' lime, slack lime, cal, and pickling lime. Calcium hydroxide is used in many applications, including food preparation, where it has been identified as E numberE526. Limewater is the common name for a saturated solution of calcium hydroxide.
Calcium hydroxide is poorly soluble in water with a retrograde solubility increasing from 0.66 g/L at 100 °C to 1.89 g/L at 0 °C. With a solubility product Ksp of 5.5×10−6 at T = ?[clarification needed]. its dissociation in water is large enough that its solutions are basic according to the following dissolution reaction:
- Ca(OH)2 → Ca2+ + 2 OH−
At ambient temperature, calcium hydroxide (portlandite) dissolves in pure water to produce an alkaline solution with a pH of about 12.5. Calcium hydroxide solutions can cause chemical burns. At high pH value due to a common-ion effect with the hydroxide anionOH−
, its solubility drastically decreases. This behavior is relevant to cement pastes. Aqueous solutions of calcium hydroxide are called limewater and are medium-strength bases, which reacts with acids and can attack some metals such as aluminium (amphoteric hydroxide dissolving at high pH), while protecting other metals, such as iron and steel, from corrosion by passivation of their surface. Limewater turns milky in the presence of carbon dioxide due to formation of calcium carbonate, a process called carbonatation:
- Ca(OH)2 + CO2 → CaCO3 + H2O
When heated to 512 °C, the partial pressure of water in equilibrium with calcium hydroxide reaches 101 kPa (normal atmospheric pressure), which decomposes calcium hydroxide into calcium oxide and water:
- Ca(OH)2 → CaO + H2O
Structure, preparation, occurrence
Calcium hydroxide adopts a polymeric structure, as do all metal hydroxides. The structure is identical to that of Mg(OH)2 (brucite structure); i.e., the cadmium iodide motif. Strong hydrogen bonds exist between the layers.
Calcium hydroxide is produced commercially by treating lime with water:
- CaO + H2O → Ca(OH)2
In the laboratory it can be prepared by mixing aqueous solutions of calcium chloride and sodium hydroxide. The mineral form, portlandite, is relatively rare but can be found in some volcanic, plutonic, and metamorphic rocks. It has also been known to arise in burning coal dumps.
The positively charged ionized species CaOH+ has been detected in the atmosphere of S-type stars.
The solubility of calcium hydroxide at 70 °C is about half of its value at 25 °C. According to Hopkins and Wulff (1965), the decrease of calcium hydroxide solubility with temperature is known since a long time by the works of Marcellin Berthelot (1875) and Julius Thomsen (1883) (see Thomsen–Berthelot principle), when the presence of ions in aqueous solutions was still questioned. Since, it has been studied in detail by many authors, a.o., Miller and Witt (1929) or Johnston and Grove (1931) and refined many times (e.g., Greenberg and Copeland (1960); Hopkins and Wulff (1965); Seewald and Seyfried (1991); Duchesne and Reardon (1995)).
The reason for this rather uncommon behavior is that the dissolution of calcium hydroxide in water is an exothermic process. Thus, according to Le Chatelier's principle, a lowering of temperature favours the elimination of the heat liberated through the process of dissolution and increases the equilibrium constant of dissolution of Ca(OH)2, and so increase its solubility at low temperature. This counter-intuitive temperature dependence of the solubility is referred to as "retrograde" or "inverse" solubility. The variably hydrated phases of calcium sulfate (gypsum, bassanite and anhydrite) also exhibit a retrograde solubility for the same reason because their dissolution reactions are exothermic.
Calcium hydroxide is commonly used to prepare lime mortar.
One significant application of calcium hydroxide is as a flocculant, in water and sewage treatment. It forms a fluffy charged solid that aids in the removal of smaller particles from water, resulting in a clearer product. This application is enabled by the low cost and low toxicity of calcium hydroxide. It is also used in fresh-water treatment for raising the pH of the water so that pipes will not corrode where the base water is acidic, because it is self-regulating and does not raise the pH too much.
It is also used in the preparation of ammonia gas (NH3), using the following reaction:
- Ca(OH)2 + 2 NH4Cl → 2 NH3 + CaCl2 + 2 H2O
Another large application is in the paper industry, where it is an intermediate in the reaction in the production of sodium hydroxide. This conversion is part of the causticizing step in the Kraft process for making pulp. In the causticizing operation, burned lime is added to green liquor, which is a solution primarily of sodium carbonate and sodium sulfate produced by dissolving smelt, which is the molten form of these chemicals from the recovery furnace.
Because of its low toxicity and the mildness of its basic properties, slaked lime is widely used in the food industry:
- In USDA certified food production in plants and livestock
- To clarify raw juice from sugarcane or sugar beets in the sugar industry, (see carbonatation)
- To process water for alcoholic beverages and soft drinks
- Pickle cucumbers and other foods
- To make Chinese century eggs
- In maize preparation: removes the cellulose hull of maize kernels (see nixtamalization)
- To clear a brine of carbonates of calcium and magnesium in the manufacture of salt for food and pharmaceutical uses
- In fortifying (Ca supplement) fruit drinks, such as orange juice, and infant formula
- As a digestive aid (called Choona, used in India in paan, a mixture of areca nuts, calcium hydroxide and a variety of seeds wrapped in betel leaves)
- As a substitute for baking soda in making papadam
- In the removal of carbon dioxide from controlled atmosphere produce storage rooms
- In the preparation of mushroom growing substrates
Native American uses
In Spanish, calcium hydroxide is called cal. Maize cooked with cal (in a process of nixtamalization) becomes hominy (nixtamal), which significantly increases the bioavailability of niacin (vitamin B3), and is also considered tastier and easier to digest.
In chewing coca leaves, calcium hydroxide is usually chewed alongside to keep the alkaloidstimulants chemically available for absorption by the body. Similarly, Native Americans traditionally chewed tobacco leaves with calcium hydroxide derived from burnt mollusc shells to enhance the effects. It has also been used by some indigenous American tribes as an ingredient in yopo, a psychedelic snuff prepared from the beans of some Anadenanthera species.
Calcium hydroxide is typically added to a bundle of areca nut and betel leaf called "paan" to keep the alkaloidstimulants chemically available to enter the bloodstream via sublingual absorption.
It is used in making naswar (also known as nass or niswar), a type of dipping tobacco made from fresh tobacco leaves, calcium hydroxide (chuna or soon), and wood ash. It is consumed most in the Pathan diaspora, Afghanistan, Pakistan, India and Bangladesh. Villagers also use calcium hydroxide to paint their mud houses in Afghanistan, Pakistan and India.
Unprotected exposure to Ca(OH)2 can cause severe skin irritation, chemical burns, blindness, lung damage or rashes.
- ^John Rumble (18 June 2018). CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (99 ed.). CRC Press. pp. 5–188. ISBN .
- ^"Sortierte Liste: pKb-Werte, nach Ordnungszahl sortiert. – Das Periodensystem online".
- ^ChemBuddy dissociation constants pKa and pKb
- ^Petch, H. E. (1961). "The hydrogen positions in portlandite, Ca(OH)2, as indicated by the electron distribution". Acta Crystallographica. 14 (9): 950–957. doi:10.1107/S0365110X61002771.
- ^ abZumdahl, Steven S. (2009). Chemical Principles 6th Ed. Houghton Mifflin Company. p. A21. ISBN .
- ^ ab"MSDS Calcium hydroxide"(PDF). Archived from the original(PDF) on 25 March 2012. Retrieved 21 June 2011.
- ^ abcNIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. "#0092". National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH).
- ^Halstead, P. E.; Moore, A. E. (1957). "The Thermal Dissociation of Calcium Hydroxide". Journal of the Chemical Society. 769: 3873. doi:10.1039/JR9570003873.
- ^ abGreenwood, N. N.; & Earnshaw, A. (1997). Chemistry of the Elements (2nd Edn.), Oxford:Butterworth-Heinemann. ISBN 0-7506-3365-4.
- ^Jørgensen, Uffe G. (1997), "Cool Star Models", in van Dishoeck, Ewine F. (ed.), Molecules in Astrophysics: Probes and Processes, International Astronomical Union Symposia. Molecules in Astrophysics: Probes and Processes, 178, Springer Science & Business Media, p. 446, ISBN .
- ^ abHopkins, Harry P.; Wulff, Claus A. (1965). "The solution thermochemistry of polyvalent electrolytes. I. Calcium hydroxide". The Journal of Physical Chemistry. 69 (1): 6–8. doi:10.1021/j100885a002. ISSN 0022-3654.
- ^Berthelot, M. (1875). Dissolution des acides et des alcalis. [Dissolution of acids and alkalis]. In: Annales de Chimie et de Physique. Vol. 4, pp. 445–536.
- ^Thomsen J. (1883). Thermochemische untersuchungen [Thermochemical studies]. Vol. III, Johann Ambrosius Barth Verlag, Leipzig.
- ^Miller, L. B.; Witt, J. C. (1929). "Solubility of calcium hydroxide". The Journal of Physical Chemistry. 33 (2): 285–289. doi:10.1021/j150296a010. ISSN 0092-7325.
- ^Johnston, John.; Grove, Clinton. (1931). "The solubility of calcium hydroxide in aqueous salt solutions". Journal of the American Chemical Society. 53 (11): 3976–3991. doi:10.1021/ja01362a009. ISSN 0002-7863.
- ^Greenberg, S. A.; Copeland, L. E. (1960). "The thermodynamic functions for the solution of calcium hydroxide in water". The Journal of Physical Chemistry. 64 (8): 1057–1059. doi:10.1021/j100837a023. ISSN 0022-3654.
- ^Seewald, Jeffrey S.; Seyfried, William E. (1991). "Experimental determination of portlandite solubility in H2O and acetate solutions at 100–350 °C and 500 bars: Constraints on calcium hydroxide and calcium acetate complex stability". Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta. 55 (3): 659–669. Bibcode:1991GeCoA..55..659S. doi:10.1016/0016-7037(91)90331-X. ISSN 0016-7037.
- ^Duchesne, J.; Reardon, E.J. (1995). "Measurement and prediction of portlandite solubility in alkali solutions". Cement and Concrete Research. 25 (5): 1043–1053. doi:10.1016/0008-8846(95)00099-X. ISSN 0008-8846.
- ^Pesticide Research Institute for the USDA National Organic Program (23 March 2015). "Hydrated Lime: Technical Evaluation Report"(PDF). Agriculture Marketing Services. Retrieved 17 July 2019.
- ^"Preparation of Mushroom Growing Substrates". North American Mycological Association. North American Mycological Association. Retrieved 8 July 2021.
- ^de Smet, Peter A. G. M. (1985). "A multidisciplinary overview of intoxicating snuff rituals in the Western Hemisphere". Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 3 (1): 3–49. doi:10.1016/0378-8741(85)90060-1. PMID 3887041.
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Computing molar mass (molar weight)To calculate molar mass of a chemical compound enter its formula and click 'Compute'. In chemical formula you may use:
- Any chemical element. Capitalize the first letter in chemical symbol and use lower case for the remaining letters: Ca, Fe, Mg, Mn, S, O, H, C, N, Na, K, Cl, Al.
- Functional groups: D, Ph, Me, Et, Bu, AcAc, For, Ts, Tos, Bz, TMS, tBu, Bzl, Bn, Dmg
- parantesis () or brackets .
- Common compound names.
Molar mass calculator also displays common compound name, Hill formula, elemental composition, mass percent composition, atomic percent compositions and allows to convert from weight to number of moles and vice versa.
Computing molecular weight (molecular mass)To calculate molecular weight of a chemical compound enter it's formula, specify its isotope mass number after each element in square brackets.
Examples of molecular weight computations: CO2, SO2.
Definitions of molecular mass, molecular weight, molar mass and molar weight
- Molecular mass (molecular weight) is the mass of one molecule of a substance and is expressed in the unified atomic mass units (u). (1 u is equal to 1/12 the mass of one atom of carbon-12)
- Molar mass (molar weight) is the mass of one mole of a substance and is expressed in g/mol.
Related: Molecular weights of amino acids
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