Normal urine output per hour ati

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“Decreased urine output and acute kidney injury in the PACU”

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Normal Urine Output Per Hour

So many of us have given a thought to how much urine we should pass per hour, and if it’s the same for you, then today you can learn what the normal urine output is.

Whether it’s how much urine output should an infant have per hour, 8 hours, or 24 hours, this and many more have been outlined.

Now, what happens if you discover that there are irregularities in the way you pass urine, then you need to consult a doctor.

But first, a good idea of what is normal or abnormal will help you know where you stand.

Now work with us and we’ll show you the minimal urine output, average urine output, and even the normal urine output.

Normal Urine Output Per Hour


Urine is a form of waste given off by every human including animals. It’s our body’s way of eliminating waste in the form of liquid.

The level of frequency at which you urinate may sometimes be determined by how much liquid you consume, how hot or cold the weather is, and even your mental state of mind.

Urine consists of water and chemicals, proteins, or electrolytes such as:

  • Urea
  • Sodium
  • Creatinine
  • Potassium
  • Other chemical compounds

What is the Normal Urine Output?

The normal urine output per hour for adults and children has been outlined below:

  • Adult >0.5 mL/kg/hr
  • Child >1 mL/kg/hr
  • Neonate >2 mL/kg/hr <1 year old

Normal urine output

0.5 to 1.5 cc/kg/hour

A patient should be urinating at least every 6 hours.


Decreased urine output < 300cc/m2/24 hours

< 0.5 cc/kg/hour in children

< 1.0 cc/kg/hour in infants

Usually < 500 cc/day in adults


No or minimal urine output

Usually < 100 mL/day in adults

What is a Urine 24-hour Volume Test?

The urine 24-hour volume test checks how much urine your body produces every 24 hours and the content of the urine.

Some of these contents are creatinine, protein, and other chemicals that are often released into the urine.

This test is useful in diagnosing kidney problems, however, it is worth noting that this is a noninvasive procedure.

The test does not also cause pain or discomfort and you can be through with it in no time.

How is the Urine Test Conducted

A urine 24-hour volume test can be carried out in the hospital or at home, but the goal, in the end, is to collect your urine within that period.

A urine 24-hour volume test is conducted by urinating in a container every time you need to use the restroom for 24 hours.

Here’s how to carry out the test:

  • On the first day, urinate into the toilet as soon as you get up in the morning, you don’t need to collect the first-morning urine. You may need to record and note the time it happened.
  • Next, collect all the urine in a special container for the next 24 hours
  • On the second day and at the same time you conducted the test on the first day, urinate into a container once you’re up in the morning
  • Cap the container tightly and store in the fridge or a cool place
  • Label the container with your name, date of completion, the date, and finally return it to the lab or doctor’s office for testing.

For infants, you’ll be given special urine collection bags with adhesive paper to help you collect their urine easily.

Once you’ve got it, do the following:

  • Clean their urethra properly, that is, the area where urine comes out.
  • For females, place the plastic container bag over their labia, before placing a diaper over them.
  • For male, place their private region in the bag and attach an adhesive to the skin
  • Check the baby often and change the bag once they have to urinate
  • Transfer the content of the bag into the container, if one was provided by your health care provider.
  • Replace the bag with a clean one.
  • When you’ve collected urine for the 24 hour period and placed them in the container, label the container with the child’s name and date the urine was collected.

Why a 24-hour Volume Test is Conducted

Some reasons why a urine test is conducted include:

1. To Diagnose a Kidney Disease:

Doctors often recommend that a urine 24-hour volume test be carried out if they suspect a kidney disease.

Moreover, if you’re passing more urine than normal, it may call for a urine test.

Passing large volumes of urine is called polyuria and it is often evident in diabetes insipidus.

Diabetes insipidus is a medical condition that is caused by the kidney’s inability to conserve water.

On the other hand, a test may be required to check if your urine contains more or less of certain chemicals.

If your urine output is abnormally low, it is either a sign of:

  • Inadequate fluid intake
  • Dehydration
  • Renal insufficiency
  • Renal failure

An abnormally high urine volume may indicate:

  • Diabetes
  • Renal diabetes insipidus
  • Central diabetes insipidus
  • Some forms of kidney failure
  • Unusually large fluid intake
  • Taking diuretic medications

2. Clearance Test:

Another reason why urine 24-hour volume test is conducted is to be used as a  creatinine clearance test.

This test measures the amount of creatinine that has been eliminated in urine in a 24-hour period.

Similarly, this test may help the doctor to detect signs of kidney disease and the test may be coupled with other ones.

How to Prepare for a Urine 24-hour Volume Test

Little preparation is needed for a urine 24-hour volume test.

And your doctor may give specific instructions on how best to prepare depending on your current medical condition.

However, it is useful to inform your doctor if you’re pregnant or think that you may be pregnant.

In line with that, you need to inform your doctor of any prescription or supplements you may be on.

It is also worth noting that fasting or eating less is not part of the requirement for preparing for the test.

Your doctor may advise against eating certain foods or drinking some beverages.

And most importantly, choose a day when you’ll be at home so it’s easier to collect the urine into a container.

It’ll also be easier to schedule the test than moving from home to work and back home or school to home etc.

Reasons for Inaccurate Result

It is also possible for the result of your urine test to be inaccurate due to the following reasons:

  • Not collecting all your urine within a 24-hour period
  • Collecting excess urine past the stipulated period
  • Not keeping the urine in a cool place
  • Spilling the content of the container
  • Delaying to return the urine sample


The normal urine output per hour, 8 hours, or 24 hours may vary depending on your liquid consumption and the temperature of the day.

Despite this, giving off urine more frequently than usual calls for a medical check-up.

Therefore, if you have any concerns or believe you’ve been passing urine more than normal, pay your doctor a visit and a test will be carried out.

Remember, the earlier you get checked and get a professional opinion, the better.

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Urine Output

Let’s talk urine. More specifically, let’s talk measuring urine output. Are you doing it? And on which patients? If you are measuring urine output are you interpreting the results to be meaningful to your patient? Urine output measurement is an important part of patient monitoring and can alert you to major problems that you may not catch on physical exam.

Urine output is a signifier of renal perfusion; a perfused kidney is a happy kidney doing its job. Patients who have experienced shock, hypotension, or any other situation where blood pressure to the kidneys was severely compromised can suffer long term kidney damage. If you are aware of such an event, monitoring for decreased urine output can alert you to such damage before performing blood work. Urine output will also clue you in to kidney failure; if output is consistently low or not responding to treatment, it is a way to evaluate kidney function without checking blood values every four hours.

Monitoring urine output does not have to be an invasive, highly technical procedure. While the gold standard is placing an indwelling urinary catheter connected to a closed collection system, there are many other ways to look at urine and determine varying levels of information about your patient. First, determine the color. Dogs that are dehydrated will often have dark yellow urine. Brown urine can signify rhabdomyolysis, a dangerous condition from muscle breakdown that can lead to kidney failure. Red or orange urine can mean hemolysis, either from IMHA or from a mismatched blood transfusion, or hematuria from crystalluria or a bleeding disorder. If you can’t tell if the blood is fresh or hemolyzed, centrifuge the urine. A hemolyzed sample will retain the same color after spinning, frank blood will centrifuge out leaving a clear supernatant.  Clear or very pale yellow urine may be normal for that animal, but can also signify overhydration or an inability of the kidneys to concentrate urine. As a technician, you can start a list of potential problems just by noting the color of urine.

Monitoring the urine specific gravity can also give you a clue to the animal’s hydration status. Urine specific gravity is comparing the weight of urine (essentially the concentration) compared to distilled water. A specific gravity of 1.000 (the same as distilled water) is dilute, >1.040 is concentrated. Kidneys that are not functioning will be incapable of concentrating urine and will yield a low specific gravity; dehydrated animals will have concentrated urine. Monitoring trends in urine specific gravity can help you determine hydration and how well the animal is tolerating fluid therapy.

Lastly, in many patients it is beneficial to measure the actual output of urine. Not only knowing how many ml/kg/hr produced, but their total input related to their total output.

Again, the gold standard is an indwelling urinary catheter connected to a closed collection system where you can measure, to the mL, the amount of urine produced over a set time period (usually four hours). But don’t forget your low tech options. Is the dog walking outside? Bring a bowl and collect everything you can. Is the cat using a litterbox? Fill it with the little plastic litter pellets and draw up the urine into a syringe to quantify it. If the cat or dog isn’t getting outside or chooses not to use the litterbox, you can weigh potty pads or bedding before and after the animal urinates. The weight change in ounces is roughly equivalent to the ml of urine soaking them. These other methods are not as exact as a urinary collection system, but they sure beat guessing, and will give you valuable information about your patient.

Normal urine output is 1-2 ml/kg/hr. To determine the urine output of your patient, you need to know their weight, the amount of urine produced, and the amount of time it took them to produce that urine. Urine output should be measured at least every four hours if possible.

Urine Output Math mL per kilogram per hour

Once you know the urine output of your patient, it is important to look at that in relation to other outs (vomit, diarrhea, anything removed via NG tube, Jackson-Pratt drains, etc.) to get a complete picture. These are all sensible losses, or losses that are easily quantified. In febrile animals or dogs that are heavily panting, insensible losses (evaporation) should also be considered.

Finally, compare the outs to what is going in. What is the ml/kg/hr of fluids going in? Is it a previously obstructed cat that is producing more urine out than he is getting IV fluids in? Is it a renal failure dog that has triple the volume of ins over outs? Every time the urine output (and other sensible losses) is measured, calculate the fluids in and compare. The goal is to have those number close, or at least approaching almost equal. Every 24 hours start back at zero and continue to track.

From the relatively simple case to a critical patient, urine output is an important value to track. From the look to the weight to the actual amount of urine excreted you can gain important information about your patient’s overall status and be on the lookout for early changes. Happy measuring!



ATI Answer to NCLEX Question of the Week - 5.17.13
ATI Answer to NCLEX Question of the Week - 5.17.13
A nurse is providing care to a client receiving fluid resuscitation following a burn injury that occurred 24 hours ago. The nurse is concerned that fluid administration should be decreased when which of the following is observed?
C.  Blood pressure 90/62 mm Hg
D.  Urine output 54 mL/hr
A.  During the first 24 hours the Hct and Hgb should be monitored frequently. If the levels significantly decrease, it can be an indication of over-resuscitation requiring a decrease in fluid administration. The Hct of 44% is within normal limits and is not an indication of fluid overload.
B.  Following burn injuries clients are at risk of developing hypovolemic shock. Hypovolemic shock can be manifested by hypotension along with the compensatory response of tachycardia. A heart rate of 110/min is considered tachycardic and may be an indication the client requires continued fluid administration. It would not be an indication of volume overload requiring a decrease in fluids.
C.  Hypotension is present when the systolic blood pressure falls below 90 mm Hg. A blood pressure of 90/62 mm Hg is borderline hypotensive and would not be an indication of volume overload. It is more of an indication of hypovolemia and would more likely indicate the client requires further fluid administration.
D.  CORRECT:  Adequacy of fluid resuscitation can be determined by monitoring the client’s hourly urine output, an indicator of renal perfusion. The goal for urine output in adults is 0.5 to 1.0 mL/kg/hr. When a client’s weight is not available, 30 mL/hr is considered to be an adequate amount of urine output. During the first 24 hours the hourly urine output should be monitored. If urine output exceeds 50mL/hr, fluid administration should be decreased.
NCLEX Category: Physiological Integrity
NCLEX Sub-category: Basic Care and Comfort
The answer to this week's NCLEX question is D. If you're viewing this within the Facebook mobile app, here's a link to the rationale -

If you're viewing this from the FB mobile app, click on the first mention that says, "ATI Answer to NCLEX Question of the Week - 5.17.13".
Yay, that's two in a row for me!
Yay yay yay!! I got it!!

I was torn between B and D, but went with D!!

Great question ATI!!
Ha! Fluid and electrolyte lecture killed me this semester! I wish there was a easier way to remember all of those signs and symptoms without them
Running together
Yeah, like I said. All you other sheep went with B and were WRONG!
once you start to see clinical cases with the presenting signs and symptoms they'll stick! good luck!
Well I just passed 1st level so I'm just a baby! I've pretty much only seen bedpans and hip fractures lol but I'm learning!
getting these questions right makes me feel better about taking the NCLEX in the next few weeks. what's even better it's holding your own when so many others are certain it's the other answer. nice job! :)
glad you stuck to your guns in a comment section full of B's!
"need to stick to my guns, don't let other people sway my decisions!"
Thanks ATI ,we all got it wrong,we concentrated on the Heart Rate,that could place a client at Risk.This is a good scenario
A little something to jazz up our uniforms! The most adorable id badge holders. Perfect gift too :)
I got it right. Makes me feel good about take my nclex
how can i subscribe for this nclex question of the week and where i have to lookplz help me

Output ati hour urine per normal

Dad was holding his daughter by the torso, and grandfather by the shorts. Mom handed the bag of water to grandmother, and she herself took an enema hose in her hands and slowly introduced the unfortunate Leah into the asshole with a large. Smeared tip, after which she turned on the tap on the hose.

The grandmother lifted the rubber heating pad to a height of about a meter above Liena's bed, and the water rushed through the hose.

Pediatric Urine Output

Only you are here. your breath is palpable. you try to catch His gaze, but He does not look in the eye.

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Pulling them out, they saw that she was tied hand and foot with thin rawhide belts. They were quickly cut open and the shriveled bladder was soaked in water. Susanna Matveyevna was still warm but was no longer breathing. She apparently died less than an hour ago.

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