Treatment of neurocysticercosis

Treatment of neurocysticercosis DEFAULT

Diagnosis and Treatment of Neurocysticercosis: 2017 Clinical Practice Guidelines by the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) and the American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene (ASTMH)

1. Guyatt GH, Oxman AD, Vist GE, Kunz R, Falck-Ytter Y, Alonso-Coello P, Schünemann HJ; GRADE Working Group , 2008. GRADE: an emerging consensus on rating quality of evidence and strength of recommendations. BMJ336: 924–926. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

2. Coyle CM, et al. 2012. Neurocysticercosis: neglected but not forgotten. PLoS Negl Trop Dis6: e1500. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

3. Garcia HH, Nash TE, Del Brutto OH, 2014. Clinical symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment of neurocysticercosis. Lancet Neurol13: 1202–1215. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

4. Ndimubanzi PC, Carabin H, Budke CM, Nguyen H, Qian YJ, Rainwater E, Dickey M, Reynolds S, Stoner JA, 2010. A systematic review of the frequency of neurocyticercosis with a focus on people with epilepsy. PLoS Negl Trop Dis4: e870. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

5. O’Neal SE, Flecker RH, 2015. Hospitalization frequency and charges for neurocysticercosis, United States, 2003–2012. Emerg Infect Dis21: 969–976. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

6. O’Keefe KA, Eberhard ML, Shafir SC, Wilkins P, Ash LR, Sorvillo FJ, 2015. Cysticercosis-related hospitalizations in the United States, 1998–2011. Am J Trop Med Hyg92: 354–359. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

7. Guyatt GH, Oxman AD, Schunemann HJ, Tugwell P, Knottnerus A, 2011. GRADE guidelines: a new series of articles in the Journal of Clinical Epidemiology. J Clin Epidemiol64: 380–382. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

8. Del Brutto OH, 2014. Neurocysticercosis. Neurohospitalist4: 205–212. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

9. Ong S, Talan DA, Moran GJ, Mower W, Newdow M, Tsang VC, Pinner RW; EMERGEncy ID NET Study Group , 2002. Neurocysticercosis in radiographically imaged seizure patients in U.S. emergency departments. Emerg Infect Dis8: 608–613. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

10. Serpa JA, Graviss EA, Kass JS, White AC, Jr, 2011. Neurocysticercosis in Houston, Texas: an update. Medicine (Baltimore)90: 81–86. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

11. Rangel-Castilla L, Serpa JA, Gopinath SP, Graviss EA, Diaz-Marchan P, White AC, Jr, 2009. Contemporary neurosurgical approaches to neurocysticercosis. Am J Trop Med Hyg80: 373–378. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

12. Rajshekhar V, Chandy MJ, 1997. Validation of diagnostic criteria for solitary cerebral cysticercus granuloma in patients presenting with seizures. Acta Neurol Scand96: 76–81. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

13. Del Brutto OH, et al. 2001. Proposed diagnostic criteria for neurocysticercosis. Neurology57: 177–183. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

14. Lerner A, Shiroishi MS, Zee CS, Law M, Go JL, 2012. Imaging of neurocysticercosis. Neuroimaging Clin N Am22: 659–676. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

15. Hernandez RD, Duran BB, Lujambio PS, 2014. Magnetic resonance imaging in neurocysticercosis. Top Magn Reson Imaging23: 191–198. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

16. Tsang VC, Brand JA, Boyer AE, 1989. An enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot assay and glycoprotein antigens for diagnosing human cysticercosis (Taenia solium). J Infect Dis159: 50–59. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

17. Del Brutto OH, 2012. Diagnostic criteria for neurocysticercosis, revisited. Pathog Glob Health106: 299–304. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

18. Proano-Narvaez JV, Meza-Lucas A, Mata-Ruiz O, Garcia-Jeronimo RC, Correa D, 2002. Laboratory diagnosis of human neurocysticercosis: double-blind comparison of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and electroimmunotransfer blot assay. J Clin Microbiol40: 2115–2118. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

19. Carod JF, Randrianarison M, Razafimahefa J, Ramahefarisoa RM, Rakotondrazaka M, Debruyne M, Dautigny M, Cazal P, Andriantseheno ML, Charles ER, 2012. Evaluation of the performance of 5 commercialized enzyme immunoassays for the detection of Taenia solium antibodies and for the diagnosis of neurocysticercosis. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis72: 85–89. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

20. Wilson M, Bryan RT, Fried JA, Ware DA, Schantz PM, Pilcher JB, Tsang VC, 1991. Clinical evaluation of the cysticercosis enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot in patients with neurocysticercosis. J Infect Dis164: 1007–1009. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

21. Gabriël S, Blocher J, Dorny P, Abatih EN, Schmutzhard E, Ombay M, Mathias B, Winkler AS, 2012. Added value of antigen ELISA in the diagnosis of neurocysticercosis in resource poor settings. PLoS Negl Trop Dis6: e1851. [PMC free article] [PubMed]

Sours: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5928844/

Resources for Health Professionals

Cysticercosis is caused by infection with the larval form (or cysticercus) of the tapeworm Taenia solium. The most important clinical manifestations are caused by cysts in the central nervous system, known as neurocysticercosis. The resulting signs and symptoms depend on the number, location, size, and stage (viable, degenerating, or calcified) of the cysticerci and the intensity of the host inflammatory response to degenerating cysts. Seizures are the most common manifestation, present in 70-90% of symptomatic patients in published case series. Less frequent clinical manifestations include intracranial hypertension, hydrocephalus, chronic meningitis, and cranial nerve abnormalities. Diagnosis usually involves both serological testing and brain imaging. The most urgent therapeutic interventions are aimed at managing the neurological complications, and may require anticonvulsant therapy, corticosteroids, neurosurgical intervention and/or treatment of increased intracranial pressure. Anthelminthic treatment may be indicated, but must be administered with caution, because larval death provokes an inflammatory response that may increase symptoms. Concomitant steroids are usually indicated.

The period between initial infection and symptom onset varies from several months to many years. In the United States, infections are detected predominantly in immigrants from Mexico, Guatemala, and other Latin American countries who acquired their infections in their home country. However, taeniasis and cysticercosis occur globally, with the highest rates in areas of Latin America, Asia, and sub-Saharan Africa with poor sanitation and free-ranging pigs with access to human feces.

Clusters and sporadic cases of cysticercosis acquired in the U.S. have been reported. Food handlers with taeniasis are of particular concern in this scenario (see prevention/control section for more information).

In humans, cysticerci (encysted larvae) often occur in skeletal muscles. However, the manifestations that most frequently lead patients to visit health care providers are caused by cysts in the central nervous system (CNS), known as neurocysticercosis. Less frequently, cysticerci may localize in the eyes, skin, or heart.

Neurocysticercosis may be parenchymal (occurring in the brain substance, the most common location) or extraparenchymal (occurring in the meninges, the ventricles, the basilar cisterns, or the subarachnoid space of the brain or spinal cord).

Clinical manifestations of cysticercosis depend on the number, location, size, and stage (viable, degenerating, or calcified) of the cysticerci and the intensity of the inflammatory response to degenerating cysts. Epilepsy is the most common manifestation, present in 70-90% of symptomatic patients in published case series. Less frequent clinical manifestations include intracranial hypertension, hydrocephalus, chronic meningitis, and cranial nerve abnormalities.

The number of cysticerci in the host can vary from one to more than 1,000. In the absence of massive numbers of cysticerci, the initial host tissue reaction is usually minimal. The developing cysticercus affects the surrounding tissue as a slowly growing mass that may cause pressure atrophy. Most live cysts do not cause an inflammatory reaction, but an acute inflammatory response occurs when the cysts degenerate, which results in the release of parasite antigens. Degeneration of a cyst may occur years after the initial infection. Some calcified cysts may intermittently release antigen, though this process is not fully understood.  In the CNS, the inflammatory reaction and resultant edema appear as a contrast-enhancing ring around the cyst on imaging.  There may be CSF pleocytosis as well. Necrotic larvae are completely or partially resorbed, but may become calcified, resulting in focal scarring that may provide a focus for seizures.

The distinction between parenchymal and extraparenchymal neurocysticercosis has important prognostic implications. Parenchymal disease with small numbers of cysts carries an excellent long-term prognosis (probably even without anthelminthic therapy) compared to parenchymal disease with > 50 cysts and extraparenchymal disease.

Back To Top

 

Diagnosis typically requires both CNS imaging and serological testing. A careful history should be taken, including questions regarding residence or extended travel in developing countries, and consumption of food prepared by someone who has lived in a high-risk area.

Diagnosis often requires both imaging and serological testing because:

  • A patient may have clinical disease from a single or very few cysticerci. In this instance, serological results may be negative, but the lesions may be visible on imaging.
  • A patient may have cysticerci in locations other than the brain. In this instance, CNS imaging is negative but serological results might be positive, indicating an antibody response to lesions elsewhere (e.g. the spinal cord).
  • The location and characteristics of the lesions on imaging, especially on MRI, are essential to determine the best treatment modalities.

Computerized tomography (CT) is superior to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for demonstrating small calcifications. However, MRI shows cysts in some locations (cerebral convexity, ventricular ependyma) better than CT, is more sensitive than CT to demonstrate surrounding edema, and may show internal changes indicating the death of cysticerci.

In recent years, the use of CT and MRI has permitted identification of neurocysticercosis cases with a benign course that would not have been detected previously. It is now recognized that most infections are asymptomatic, or mildly symptomatic and benign. Mortality is low in patients with parenchymal cysts or calcification without hydrocephalus. However, untreated cysticercosis with hydrocephalus, large basilar or supratentorial cysts, massive numbers of cysts, intracranial hypertension, or cerebral infarction can be life-threatening.

There are two available serologic tests to detect cysticercosis, the enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot or EITB, and commercial enzyme-linked immunoassays. The immunoblot is the test preferred by CDC, because its sensitivity and specificity have been well characterized in published analyses.

More on: DPDx’s Diagnostic Procedures

At least one commercial laboratory offers EITB testing.  For confirmatory testing in cases where EITB is not available, contact the CDC directly. Cysticercosis is a reportable disease in several states. Health care providers should check with their state health department to determine if they require notification of patients testing positive for cysticercosis.

Back To Top

 

The choice of treatment for neurocysticercosis depends on the clinical manifestations and the location, number, size, and stage of cysticerci. Anthelminthic chemotherapy for symptomatic neurocysticercosis is almost never a medical emergency. The focus of initial therapy is control of seizures, edema, intracranial hypertension, or hydrocephalus, when one of these conditions is present. Under certain circumstances, a ventricular shunt or other neurosurgical procedure may be indicated. Rarely, neurocysticercosis — especially large and/or subarachnoid (racemose) lesions — may present with imminent threat of intracranial herniation, a neurosurgical emergency.

Anthelminthic therapy, because it kills viable cysts and provokes an inflammatory response, may actually increase symptoms acutely. Co-administration of corticosteroids that cross the blood brain barrier (e.g. dexamethasone) is used to mitigate these effects. Recent placebo-controlled trials confirm that albendazole treatment in appropriately selected neurocysticercosis patients is effective in decreasing the frequency of generalized seizures in long-term follow-up.

Although the heterogeneity of the clinical picture of neurocysticercosis requires individual tailoring of treatment and management, several general principles apply:

  • Anthelminthic therapy is generally indicated for symptomatic patients with multiple, live (noncalcified) cysticerci.
  • Anthelminthic treatment will not benefit patients with dead worms (calcified cysts).
  • Concomitant administration of steroids (e.g. dexamethasone) is often indicated to suppress the inflammatory response induced by destruction of live cysticerci.
  • Conventional anticonvulsant therapy is the mainstay of management of neurocysticercosis-associated seizure disorders.
  • Intraventricular cysts should usually be treated by surgical removal (endoscopic if possible). Anthelminthics are relatively contraindicated, because the resulting inflammatory response could precipitate obstructive hydrocephalus.
  • Although our understanding of subarachnoid neurocysticercosis is evolving, treatment with both anthelminthics and corticosteroids is usually required. Ventricular shunting is often necessary as well.

Even when anthelminthic therapy is successful, continued use of anticonvulsant and other symptomatic medications may still be needed because the pathology may be irreversible. Decisions regarding discontinuation of anticonvulsant regimens must be made on an individual clinical basis, but data suggest that many patients can be eventually weaned from anticonvulsant therapy.

Back To Top

 

Several studies suggest that albendazole (conventional dosage 15 mg/kg/day in 2 divided doses for 15 days) may be superior to praziquantel (50 mg/kg/day for 15 days) for the treatment of neurocysticercosis. In comparative clinical trials, albendazole was equivalent or superior to praziquantel in reducing the number of live cysticerci. A recent placebo-controlled, double-blinded trial demonstrated that albendazole treatment (400 mg twice daily plus 6 mg dexamethasone QD for 10 days) significantly decreased generalized seizures over 30 months of follow-up.

More prolonged treatment courses (e.g. 30 days of albendazole, which may be repeated) may be needed for extraparenchymal or extensive disease. Albendazole is more likely to be effective against extraparenchymal forms of the disease because of better penetration than praziquantel into the CSF. Another possible contributing factor to the greater efficacy of albendazole is that serum and CSF metabolite levels appear to be potentiated by concomitant corticosteroids, whereas praziquantel levels are depressed. Albendazole, unlike praziquantel, has been reported to be effective in giant subarachnoid cysticerci (racemose cysts) and in extraocular muscle cysts. Both drugs appear to have a role in therapy, since cases that have not responded to one of the drugs have been reported to respond to the other.

Oral albendazole is available for human use in the United States.

Oral praziquantel is available for human use in the United States.

Back To Top

 

The control and prevention of cysticercosis depends on preventing fecal-oral transmission of eggs from persons with taeniasis. Follow-up of cysticercosis cases reported to the Los Angeles County Health Department from 1988 to 1991 demonstrated at least one active tapeworm carrier among family contacts of 22% of locally acquired cases, and 5% of imported cases. Identification and treatment of tapeworm carriers is an important public health measure that can prevent further cases.

When traveling to areas with poor sanitation, persons should be particularly careful to avoid foods that might be contaminated by human feces. Food handlers should be educated in good handwashing practices. Based on investigations of cases of neurocysticercosis in U.S. citizens who acquired their infections from asymptomatic household employees from Latin America, CDC recommended that such employees should have stool examinations for taeniasis and be treated if found to be infected. CDC does not recommend the routine testing of commercial food handlers, but does support policies aimed at ensuring that food handlers are taught and adhere to good handwashing practices.

More on:Handwashing

More on:Food and Water Safety

Back To Top

Sours: https://www.cdc.gov/parasites/cysticercosis/health_professionals/index.html
  1. Eero outdoor enclosure
  2. Emergency sos iphone 11
  3. Dear god quotes funny

Current Consensus Guidelines for Treatment of Neurocysticercosis

1. Agapejev, S., M. D. Da Silva, and A. K. Ueda. 1996. Severe forms of neurocysticercosis: treatment with albendazole. Arq. Neuropsiquiatr.54:82-93. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

2. Agapejev, S., D. A. Meira, B. Barraviera, J. M. Machado, P. C. Pereira, R. P. Mendes, A. Kamegasawa, and P. R. Curi. 1988. Neurocysticercosis: treatment with albendazole and dextrochloropheniramine (preliminary report). Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Sao Paulo30:387-389. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

3. Alarcon, F., L. Escalante, G. Duenas, M. Montalvo, and M. Roman. 1989. Neurocysticercosis. Short course of treatment with albendazole. Arch. Neurol.46:1231-1236. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

4. Bandres, J. C., A. C. White, Jr., T. Samo, E. C. Murphy, and R. L. Harris. 1992. Extraparenchymal neurocysticercosis: report of five cases and review of management. Clin. Infect. Dis.15:799-811. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

5. Baranwal, A. K., P. D. Singhi, N. Khandelwal, and S. C. Singhi. 1998. Albendazole therapy in children with focal seizures and single small enhancing computerized tomographic lesions: a randomized, placebo-controlled, double blind trial. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J.17:696-700. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

6. Baranwal, A. K., P. D. Singhi, S. C. Singhi, and N. Khandelwal. 2001. Seizure recurrence in children with focal seizures and single small enhancing computed tomographic lesions: prognostic factors on long-term follow-up. J. Child. Neurol.16:443-445. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

7. Berche, M., B. Hayot, M. Mokrane, G. Najjar, and E. Bouzas. 1990. Ocular cysticercosis, typical forms and treatment. Ophthalmologie4:377-379. (In French.) [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

8. Bergsneider, M. 1999. Endoscopic removal of cysticercal cysts within the fourth ventricle. J. Neurosurg.91:340-345. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

9. Bergsneider, M., L. T. Holly, J. H. Lee, W. A. King, and J. G. Frazee. 2000. Endoscopic management of cysticercal cysts within the lateral and third ventricles. J. Neurosurg.92:14-23. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

10. Bickerstaff, E. R., P. C. P. Cloake, B. Hughes, and W. T. Smith. 1952. The racemose form of cerebral cysticercosis. Brain75:1-18. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

11. Bittencourt, P. R., C. M. Gracia, A. M. Gorz, S. Mazer, and T. V. Oliveira. 1990. High-dose praziquantel for neurocysticercosis: efficacy and tolerability. Eur. Neurol.30:229-234. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

12. Bittencourt, P. R. M., C. M. Gracia, R. Martins, A. G. Fernandes, H. W. Diekmann, and W. Jung. 1992. Phenytoin and carbamazepine decrease oral bioavailability of praziquantel. Neurology42:492-495. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

13. Botero, D., and S. Castano. 1982. Treatment of cysticercosis with praziquantel in Colombia. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg.31:811-821. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

14. Botero, D., C. S. Uribe, J. L. Sanchez, T. Alzate, G. Velasquez, N. E. Ocampo, and L. A. Villa. 1993. Short course albendazole treatment for neurocysticercosis in Columbia. Trans. R. Soc Trop. Med. Hyg.87:576-577. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

15. Brailsford, J. F. 1941. Cysticercus cellulosae-Its radiographic detection in the musculature and the central nervous system. Br. J. Radiol. XIV:79-93.

16. Brink, G., H. Schenone, V. Diaz, M. Parra, and M. Corrales. 1980. Neurocisticercosis. Tratamiento con praziquantel. Estudio preliminar. Bol. Chil. Parasitol.35:66-70. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

17. Carpio, A., A. Escobar, and W. A. Hauser. 1998. Cysticercosis and epilepsy: a critical review. Epilepsia39:1025-1040. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

18. Carpio, A., F. Santillan, P. Leon, C. Flores, and W. A. Hauser. 1995. Is the course of neurocysticercosis modified by treatment with antihelminthic agents? Arch. Intern. Med155:1982-1988. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

19. Chandy, M. J., V. Rajshekhar, S. Ghosh, S. Prakash, T. Joseph, J. Abraham, and S. M. Chandi. 1991. Single small enhancing CT lesions in Indian patients with epilepsy: clinical, radiological and pathological considerations. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry54:702-705. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

20. Chandy, M. J., V. Rajshekhar, S. Prakash, S. Ghosh, T. Joseph, J. Abraham, and S. M. Chandi. 1989. Cysticercosis causing single, small CT lesions in Indian patients with seizures. Lancet i:390-391. [PubMed]

21. Chotmongkol, V. 1993. Treatment of neurocysticercosis with a two week course of albendazole. Southeast Asian J. Trop. Med. Public Health24:396-398. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

22. Colli, B. O., J. A. Assirati Junior, H. R. Machado, F. dos Santos, and O. M. Takayanagui. 1994. Cysticercosis of the central nervous system. II. Spinal cysticercosis. Arq. Neuropsiquiatr.52:187-199. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

23. Colli, B. O., N. Martelli, J. A. Assirati, Jr., H. R. Machado, and S. de Vergueiro Forjaz. 1986. Results of surgical treatment of neurocysticercosis in 69 cases. J. Neurosurg.65:309-315. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

24. Corona, T., R. Lugo, R. Medina, and J. Sotelo. 1999. Esquema corto de praziquantel para el tratamiento de la neurocisticercosis parenquimatosa. Gac. Med. Mex.135:369-372. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

25. Corona, T., R. Lugo, R. Medina, and J. Sotelo. 1996. Single-day praziquantel therapy for neurocysticercosis. N. Engl. J. Med.334:125. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

26. Corona, T., D. Pascoe, D. Gonzalez-Barranco, P. Abad, L. Landa, and B. Estanol. 1986. Anticysticercous antibodies in serum and cerebrospinal fluid in patients with cerebral cysticercosis. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry49:1044-1049. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

27. Corral, I., C. Quereda, A. Moreno, R. Lopez-Velez, J. Martinez-San-Millan, A. Guerrero, and J. Sotelo. 1996. Intramedullary cysticercosis cured with drug treatment. A case report. Spine21:2284-2287. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

28. Cruz, I., M. E. Cruz, F. Carrasco, and J. Horton. 1995. Neurocysticercosis: optimal dose treatment with albendazole. J. Neurol. Sci.133:152-154. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

29. Cruz, M., I. Cruz, and J. Horton. 1991. Albendazole versus praziquantel in the treatment of cerebral cysticercosis: clinical evaluation. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg.85:244-247. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

30. Cudlip, S. A., P. R. Wilkins, and H. T. Marsh. 1998. Endoscopic removal of a third ventricular cysticercal cyst. Br. J. Neurosurg.12:452-454. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

31. Cuetter, A. C., J. Garcia-Bobadilla, L. G. Guerra, F. M. Martinez, and B. Kaim. 1997. Neurocysticercosis: focus on intraventricular disease. Clin. Infect. Dis.24:157-164. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

32. De Ghetaldi, L. D., R. M. Norman, and A. W. Douville, Jr. 1983. Cerebral cysticercosis treated biphasically with dexamethasone and praziquantel. Ann. Intern. Med.99:179-181. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

33. Del Brutto, O. H. 1997. Albendazole therapy for subarachnoid cysticerci: clinical and neuroimaging analysis of 17 patients. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry62:659-661. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

34. Del Brutto, O. H. 1993. The use of albendazole in patients with single lesions enhanced on contrast CT. N. Engl. J. Med.328:356-357. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

35. Del Brutto, O. H., X. Campos, J. Sanchez, and A. Mosquera. 1999. Single-day praziquantel versus 1-week albendazole for neurocysticercosis. Neurology52:1079-1081. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

36. Del Brutto, O. H., and L. A. Quintero. 1995. Cysticercosis mimicking brain tumor: the role of albendazole as a diagnostic tool. Clin. Neurol. Neurosurg.97:256-258. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

37. Del Brutto, O. H., V. Rajshekhar, A. C. White, Jr., V. C. Tsang, T. E. Nash, O. M. Takayanagui, P. M. Schantz, C. A. Evans, A. Flisser, D. Correa, D. Botero, J. C. Allan, E. Sarti, A. E. Gonzalez, R. H. Gilman, and H. H. Garcia. 2001. Proposed diagnostic criteria for neurocysticercosis. Neurology57:177-183. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

38. Del Brutto, O. H., R. Santibanez, C. A. Noboa, R. Aguirre, E. Diaz, and T. A. Alarcon. 1992. Epilepsy due to neurocysticercosis: analysis of 203 patients. Neurology42:389-392. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

39. Del Brutto, O. H., and J. Sotelo. 1988. Neurocysticercosis: an update. Rev Infect. Dis.10:1075-1087. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

40. Del Brutto, O. H., J. Sotelo, R. Aguirre, E. Diaz-Calderon, and T. A. Alarcon. 1992. Albendazole therapy for giant subarachnoid cysticerci. Arch. Neurol.49:535-538. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

41. Del Brutto, O. H., J. Sotelo, and G. C. Roman. 1997. Neurocysticercosis: a clinical handbook. Swets and Zeitliger, Lisse, The Netherlands.

42. Del Brutto, O. H., J. Sotelo, and G. C. Roman. 1993. Therapy for neurocysticercosis: a reappraisal. Clin. Infect. Dis.17:730-735. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

43. Del Brutto, O. H., N. H. Wadia, M. Dumas, M. Cruz, V. C. Tsang, and P. M. Schantz. 1996. Proposal of diagnostic criteria for human cysticercosis and neurocysticercosis. J. Neurol. Sci.142:1-6. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

44. Dixon, H. B., Lipscomb, F. M. 1961. Cysticercosis: an analysis and follow-up of 450 cases, vol. 299. Medical Research Council, London, UK.

45. Dixon, H. B. F., and W. H. Hargreaves. 1944. Cysticercosis (Taenia solium): a further ten years' clinical study, covering 284 cases. Q. J. Med.13:107-121. [Google Scholar]

46. Dixon, H. B. F., and D. W. Smithers. 1934. Epilepsy in cysticercosis (Taenia solium). A study of seventy-one cases. Q. J. Med.3:603-616. [Google Scholar]

47. Dumas, J. L., J. M. Vusy, and C. Belin. 1997. Parenchymal neurocysticercosis: follow up and staging by MRI. Neuroradiology39:12-16. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

48. Escobar, A. 1983. The pathology of neurocysticercosis, p. 27-54. In E. Palacios, J. Rodriguez-Carbajal, and J. M. Taveras (ed.), Cysticercosis of the central nervous system. Charles C. Thomas, Springfield, Ill.

49. Escobedo, F., P. Penagos, J. Rodriguez, and J. Sotelo. 1987. Albendazole therapy for neurocysticercosis. Arch. Intern. Med.147:738-741. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

50. Estanol, B., T. Corona, and P. Abad. 1986. A prognostic classification of cerebral cysticercosis: therapeutic implications. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry49:1131-1134. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

51. Flisser, A. 1994. Taeniasis and cysticercosis due to Taenia solium. Prog. Clin. Parasitol.4:77-116. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

52. Flisser, A., D. Gonzalez, M. Shkurovich, I. Madrazo, D. Correa, J. Rodriguez-Carbajal, S. Cohen, E. Rodriguez-del-Rosal, M. Collado, B. Fernandez, et al. 1990. Praziquantel treatment of porcine brain and muscle Taenia solium cysticercosis. 1. Radiological, physiological and histopathological studies. Parasitol. Res.76:263-269. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

53. Garcia, H. H., and O. H. Del Brutto. 2000. Taenia solium cysticercosis. Infect. Dis. Clin. North Am.14:97-119. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

54. Garcia, H. H., and R. H. Gilman. 1995. Medical treatment of cysticercosis: ineffective vs effective. Arch. Neurol.52:941. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

55. Garcia, H. H., R. H. Gilman, J. Horton, M. Martinez, G. Herrera, J. Altamirano, J. M. Cuba, N. Rios-Saavedra, M. Verastegui, J. Boero, and A. E. Gonzalez. 1997. Albendazole therapy for neurocysticercosis: a prospective double-blind trial comparing 7 versus 14 days of treatment. Cysticercosis Working Group in Peru. Neurology48:1421-1427. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

56. Garcia, H. H., and S. M. Martinez. 1999. Taenia solium taeniasis/cysticercosis, 2nd ed. Universo, Lima, Peru.

57. Goldberg, M. A. 1984. Praziquantel for cysticercosis of the brain parenchyma. N. Engl. J. Med.311:732-734. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

58. Gongora, F., J. Santos, R. Hernandez, H. Jung, D. Gonzalez, J. L. Soto, and C. Marquez. 2001. Albendazole therapy for subarachnoidal and intraventricular cysticercosis: a prospective double-blind trial comparing 15 versus 30 mg/kg/dayay. Neurology56(Suppl. 3):A404. [Google Scholar]

59. Groll, E. W. 1982. Chemotherapy of human cysticercosis with praziquantel, p. 207-218. In A. Flisser et al. (ed.), Cysticercosis: present state of knowledge and perspectives. Academic Press, New York, N.Y.

60. Henneberg, R. 1912. Die tierischen parasiten des zentralnervensystem, p. 642-683. In M. Lewandowsky (ed.), Handbuch der neurologie, vol. III. Springer, Berlin, Germany.

61. Jung, H., M. Hurtado, M. T. Medina, M. Sanchez, and J. Sotelo. 1990. Dexamethasone increases plasma levels of albendazole. J. Neurol.237:279-280. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

62. Jung, H., M. Hurtado, M. Sanchez, M. T. Medina, and J. Sotelo. 1990. Plasma and cerebrospinal fluid levels of albendazole and praziquantel in patients with neurocysticercosis. Clin. Neuropharmacol.13:559-564. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

63. Kim, S. K., K. C. Wang, S. H. Paek, K. S. Hong, and B. K. Cho. 1999. Outcomes of medical treatment of neurocysticercosis: a study of 65 cases in Cheju Island, Korea. Surg. Neurol.52:563-569. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

64. Kramer, L. D. 1990. Antihelminthic therapy for neurocysticercosis. Arch. Neurol.47:1059-1060. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

65. Kramer, L. D. 1995. Medical treatment of cysticercosis-ineffective. Arch. Neurol.52:101-102. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

66. Kramer, L. D., G. E. Locke, S. E. Byrd, and J. Daryabagi. 1989. Cerebral cysticercosis: documentation of natural history with CT. Radiology171:459-462. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

67. Lawner, P. M. 1983. Medical management of neurocysticercosis with Praziquantel. Bull. Clin. Neurosci.48:102-105. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

68. Leblanc, R., K. F. Knowles, D. Melanson, J. D. MacLean, G. Rouleau, and J. P. Farmer. 1986. Neurocysticercosis: surgical and medical management with praziquantel. Neurosurgery18:419-427. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

69. Lopez-Gomez, M., N. Castro, H. Jung, J. Sotelo, and T. Corona. 2001. Optimization of the single-day praziquantel therapy for neurocysticercosis. Neurology57:1929-1930. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

70. Madrazo, I. and A. Flisser. 1992. Cysticercosis, p. 1419-1430. In M. L. J. Apuzzo (ed.), Brain surgery: complication avoidance and management. Churchill Livingstone, New York, N.Y.

71. Markwalder, K., K. Hess, A. Valavanis, and F. Witassek. 1984. Cerebral cysticercosis: treatment with praziquantel. Report of two cases. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg.33:273-280. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

72. Martinez, H. R., R. Rangel-Guerra, J. H. Arredondo-Estrada, A. Marfil, and J. Onofre. 1995. Medical and surgical treatment in neurocysticercosis a magnetic resonance study of 161 cases. J. Neurol. Sci.130:25-34. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

73. McArthur, W. P. 1934. Cysticercosis as seen in the British army with special reference to the production of epilepsy. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg.27:343-363. [Google Scholar]

74. Miller, B., V. Grinnell, M. A. Goldberg, and D. Heiner. 1983. Spontaneous radiographic disappearance of cerebral cysticercosis: three cases. Neurology33:1377-1379. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

75. Mitchell, W. G., and T. O. Crawford. 1988. Intraparenchymal cerebral cysticercosis in children: diagnosis and treatment. Pediatrics82:76-82. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

76. Moodley, M., and A. Moosa. 1989. Treatment of neurocysticercosis: is praziquantel the new hope? Lancet i:262-263. [PubMed]

77. Noboa, C. 1993. Albendazole therapy for giant subarachnoid cysticerci. Arch. Neurol.50:347-348. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

78. Padma, M. V., M. Behari, N. K. Misra, and G. K. Ahuja. 1995. Albendazole in neurocysticercosis. Natl. Med. J. India8:255-258. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

79. Padma, M. V., M. Behari, N. K. Misra, and G. K. Ahuja. 1994. Albendazole in single CT ring lesions in epilepsy. Neurology44:1344-1346. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

80. Pretell, E. J., H. H. Garcia, N. Custodio, C. Padilla, M. Alvarado, R. H. Gilman, and M. Martinez. 2000. Short regimen of praziquantel in the treatment of single brain enhancing lesions. Clin. Neurol. Neurosurg.102:215-218. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

81. Pretell, E. J., H. H. Garcia, R. H. Gilman, H. Saavedra, M. Martinez, and the Cysticercosis Working Group in Peru. 2001. Failure of one-day praziquantel treatment in patients with multiple neurocysticercosis lesions. Clin. Neurol. Neurosurg.103:175-177. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

82. Proano, J. V., I. Madrazo, F. Avelar, B. Lopez-Felix, G. Diaz, and I. Grijalva. 2001. Medical treatment for neurocysticercosis characterized by giant subarachnoid cysts. N. Engl. J. Med.345:879-885. [PubMed]

Sours: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC126865/

Diagnosis and treatment of neurocysticercosis

References

  1. 1

    [No authors listed] Relationship between epilepsy and tropical diseases. Commission on Tropical Diseases of the International League Against Epilepsy. Epilepsia35, 89–93 (1994).

  2. 2

    Garcia, H. H. & Del Brutto, O. H. Neurocysticercosis: updated concepts about an old disease. Lancet Neurol.4, 653–661 (2005).

    PubMed Google Scholar

  3. 3

    Ndimubanzi, P. C. et al. A systematic review of the frequency of neurocyticercosis with a focus on people with epilepsy. PLoS Negl. Trop. Dis.4, e870 (2010).

    PubMedPubMed Central Google Scholar

  4. 4

    Montano, S. M. et al. Neurocysticercosis: association between seizures, serology, and brain CT in rural Peru. Neurology65, 229–233 (2005).

    CASPubMed Google Scholar

  5. 5

    Villaran, M. V. et al. Epilepsy and neurocysticercosis: an incidence study in a Peruvian rural population. Neuroepidemiology33, 25–31 (2009).

    PubMedPubMed Central Google Scholar

  6. 6

    Medina, M. T. et al. Prevalence, incidence, and etiology of epilepsies in rural Honduras: the Salama Study. Epilepsia46, 124–131 (2005).

    PubMed Google Scholar

  7. 7

    Del Brutto, O. H. et al. Epilepsy and neurocysticercosis in Atahualpa: a door-to-door survey in rural coastal Ecuador. Epilepsia46, 583–587 (2005).

    PubMed Google Scholar

  8. 8

    Budke, C. M., White, A. C. Jr & Garcia, H. H. Zoonotic larval cestode infections: neglected, neglected tropical diseases? PLoS Negl. Trop. Dis.93, 211–221 (2009).

    Google Scholar

  9. 9

    Rajshekhar, V., Joshi, D. D, Doanh, N. Q, van De, N. & Xiaonon, Z. Taenia solium taeniosis/cysticercosis in Asia: epidemiology, impact and issues. Acta Trop.87, 53–60 (2003).

    PubMed Google Scholar

  10. 10

    Del Brutto, O. H., Sotelo, J. & Roman, G. C. Neurocysticercosis: a Clinical Handbook (Swets & Zeitliger, Lisse) (1998).

    Google Scholar

  11. 11

    Schantz, P. M., Wilkins, P. P. & Tsang, V. C. W. in Emerging Infections 2 Ch. 2 (eds Scheld, W. M. et al.) 213–241 (American Society for Microbiology, Washington DC, 1998).

    Google Scholar

  12. 12

    Quet, F. et al. Meta-analysis of the association between cysticercosis and epilepsy in Africa. Epilepsia51, 830–837 (2010).

    PubMedPubMed Central Google Scholar

  13. 13

    Praet, N. et al. The disease burden of Taenia solium cysticercosis in Cameroon. PLoS Negl. Trop. Dis.3, e406 (2009).

    PubMedPubMed Central Google Scholar

  14. 14

    Winkler, A. S. et al. Epilepsy and neurocysticercosis in rural Tanzania—an imaging study. Epilepsia50, 987–993 (2009).

    PubMed Google Scholar

  15. 15

    Winkler, A. S., Willingham, A. L. 3rd, Sikasunge, C. S. & Schmutzhard, E. Epilepsy and neurocysticercosis in sub-Saharan Africa. Wien. Klin. Wochenschr.121 (Suppl. 3), 3–12 (2009).

    PubMed Google Scholar

  16. 16

    Serpa, J. A., Graviss, E. A., Kass, J. S. & White, A. C. Neurocysticercosis in Houston, Texas: an update. Medicine (Baltimore)90, 81–86 (2010).

    Google Scholar

  17. 17

    Sorvillo, F., Wilkins, P., Shafir, S. & Eberhard, M. Public health implications of cysticercosis acquired in the United States. Emerg. Infect. Dis.17, 1–6 (2010).

    Google Scholar

  18. 18

    Raffaldi, I. et al. An uncommon cause of seizures in children living in developed countries: neurocysticercosis—a case report. Ital. J. Pediatr.37, 9 (2010).

    Google Scholar

  19. 19

    Croker, C., Reporter, R. & Mascola, L. Use of statewide hospital discharge data to evaluate the economic burden of neurocysticercosis in Los Angeles County (1991–2008). Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg.83, 106–110 (2010).

    PubMedPubMed Central Google Scholar

  20. 20

    Gilman, R. H., Del Brutto, O. H., Garcia, H. H. & Martinez, M. Prevalence of taeniosis among patients with neurocysticercosis is related to severity of infection. The Cysticercosis Working Group in Peru. Neurology55, 1062 (2000).

    CASPubMed Google Scholar

  21. 21

    Sarti Gutierrez, E., Schantz, P. M., Aguilera, J. & Lopez, A. Epidemiologic observations on porcine cysticercosis in a rural community of Michoacan State, Mexico. Vet. Parasitol.41, 195–201 (1992).

    CASPubMed Google Scholar

  22. 22

    Lescano, A. G. et al. Taenia solium cysticercosis hotspots surrounding tapeworm carriers: clustering on human seroprevalence but not on seizures. PLoS Negl. Trop. Dis.3, e371 (2009).

    PubMedPubMed Central Google Scholar

  23. 23

    Nash, T. E. et al. Treatment of neurocysticercosis: current status and future research needs. Neurology67, 1120–1127 (2006).

    CASPubMedPubMed Central Google Scholar

  24. 24

    Garcia, H. H. et al. Neurocysticercosis: unraveling the nature of the single cysticercal granuloma. Neurology75, 654–658 (2010).

    CASPubMedPubMed Central Google Scholar

  25. 25

    Verma, A. et al. Toll-like receptor 4 polymorphism and its association with symptomatic neurocysticercosis. J. Infect. Dis.202, 1219–1225 (2010).

    CASPubMed Google Scholar

  26. 26

    Lobato, R. D. et al. Hydrocephalus in cerebral cysticercosis. Pathogenic and therapeutic considerations. J. Neurosurg.55, 786–793 (1981).

    CASPubMed Google Scholar

  27. 27

    Carabin, H. et al. Clinical manifestations associated with neurocysticercosis: a systematic review. PLoS Negl. Trop. Dis.5, e1152 (2011).

    PubMedPubMed Central Google Scholar

  28. 28

    Antoniuk, S. et al. Neurocysticercosis in children: clinical study and follow-up of 112 patients. Rev. Neurol.42 (Suppl. 3), S97–S101 (2006).

    PubMed Google Scholar

  29. 29

    Morales, N. M., Agapejev, S., Morales, R. R, Padula, N. A. & Lima, M. M. Clinical aspects of neurocysticercosis in children. Pediatr. Neurol.22, 287–291 (2000).

    CASPubMed Google Scholar

  30. 30

    Escobar, A. The pathology of neurocysticercosis in Cysticercosis of the Central Nervous System (eds Palacios, E. et al) 27–54 (Thomas, C. C., Springfield, 1983).

    Google Scholar

  31. 31

    Evans, C. A. W. The immunology of the host–parasite relationship in Taenia solium Cysticercosis: Implications for Prevention and Therapy in Taenia solium Taeniasis/Cysticercosis 2nd edn (eds Garcia, H. H. & Martinez, S. M) 25–37 (Editorial Universo, Lima, (1999).

    Google Scholar

  32. 32

    Nash, T. E. et al. Calcific neurocysticercosis and epileptogenesis. Neurology62, 1934–1938 (2004).

    CASPubMedPubMed Central Google Scholar

  33. 33

    Rajshekhar, V. & Chandy, M. J. (Eds) Solitary Cysticercus Granuloma: the Disappearing Lesion (Orient Longman, Chennai, 2000).

    Google Scholar

  34. 34

    Singh, G. & Murthy, J. M. Solitary cysticercus granuloma—treatment with albendazole: what is the optimal duration? Neurol. India58, 507–508 (2010).

    PubMed Google Scholar

  35. 35

    Rajshekhar, V., Haran, R. P., Prakash, G. S. & Chandy, M. J. Differentiating solitary small cysticercus granulomas and tuberculomas in patients with epilepsy. Clinical and computerized tomographic criteria. J. Neurosurg.78, 402–407 (1993).

    CASPubMed Google Scholar

  36. 36

    Sharma, P., Garg, R. K., Verma, R., Singh, M. K. & Shukla, R. Risk of seizure recurrence in patients of new-onset partial seizure having a solitary cysticercus granuloma of brain or normal neuroimaging. J. Neurol. Sci.301, 21–26 (2010).

    PubMed Google Scholar

  37. 37

    Kramer, L. D., Locke, G. E., Byrd, S. E. & Daryabagi, J. Cerebral cysticercosis: documentation of natural history with CT. Radiology171, 459–462 (1989).

    CASPubMed Google Scholar

  38. 38

    Nash, T. E. & Patronas, N. J. Edema associated with calcified lesions in neurocysticercosis. Neurology53, 777–781 (1999).

    CASPubMed Google Scholar

  39. 39

    Sheth, T. N., Pilon, L., Keystone, J. & Kucharczyk, W. Persistent MR contrast enhancement of calcified neurocysticercosis lesions. AJNR Am. J. Neuroradiol.19, 79–82 (1998).

    CASPubMed Google Scholar

  40. 40

    Ooi, W. W. et al. A calcified Taenia solium granuloma associated with recurrent perilesional edema causing refractory seizures: histopathological features. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. (in press).

  41. 41

    Nash, T. E., Pretell, J. & Garcia, H. H. Calcified cysticerci provoke perilesional edema and seizures. Clin. Infect. Dis.33, 1649–1653 (2001).

    CASPubMed Google Scholar

  42. 42

    Nash, T. E. et al. Perilesional brain oedema and seizure activity in patients with calcified neurocysticercosis: a prospective cohort and nested case–control study. Lancet Neurol.7, 1099–1105 (2008).

    PubMedPubMed Central Google Scholar

  43. 43

    Pradhan, S., Kathuria, M. K. & Gupta, R. K. Perilesional gliosis and seizure outcome: a study based on magnetization transfer magnetic resonance imaging in patients with neurocysticercosis. Ann. Neurol.48, 181–187 (2000).

    CASPubMed Google Scholar

  44. 44

    Gupta, R. K., Kathuria, M. K. & Pradhan, S. Magnetisation transfer magnetic resonance imaging demonstration of perilesional gliosis—relation with epilepsy in treated or healed neurocysticercosis. Lancet354, 44–45 (1999).

    CASPubMed Google Scholar

  45. 45

    Escobar, A. et al. The pathology of neurocysticercosis in Taenia Solium Cysticercosis: From Basic To Clinical Science Ch. 30 (eds Singh, G. & Prabhakar, S) 289–305 (Centre for Agricultural Bioscience International, Wallingford, 2002).

    Google Scholar

  46. 46

    Henneberg, R. Die tierischen parasiten des zentralnervensystem in Handbuch der Neurologie Vol. 3 (ed. Lewandowsky, M) 643–712 (Springer, Berlin, 1912).

    Google Scholar

  47. 47

    Rabiela-Cervantes, M. T. R. et al. Anatomopathological aspects of human brain cysticercosis in Cysticercosis: Present State of Knowledge and Perspectives (eds Flisser, A. et al) 179–200 (Academic, New York, 1982).

    Google Scholar

  48. 48

    Marquez-Monter, H. Cysticercosis in Pathology of Protozoal and Helminthic Diseases (ed. Marcial-Rojas, R) 592–617 (Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, 1971).

    Google Scholar

  49. 49

    Figueroa, J. J., Davis, L. E. & Magalhaes, A. Extraparenchymal neurocysticercosis in Albuquerque, New Mexico. J. Neuroimaging21, 38–43 (2010).

    Google Scholar

  50. 50

    Bandres, J. C., White, A. C. Jr, Samo, T. Murphy, E. C. & Harris, R. L. Extraparenchymal neurocysticercosis: report of five cases and review of management. Clin. Infect. Dis.15, 799–811 (1992).

    CASPubMed Google Scholar

  51. 51

    Proano, J. V. et al. Medical treatment for neurocysticercosis characterized by giant subarachnoid cysts. N. Engl. J. Med.345, 879–885 (2001).

    CASPubMed Google Scholar

  52. 52

    Bickerstaff, E. R., Cloake, P. C., Hughes, B. & Smith, W. T. The racemose form of cerebral cysticercosis. Brain75, 1–16 (1952).

    CASPubMed Google Scholar

  53. 53

    Cardenas, G., Jung, H., Rios, C., Fleury, A. & Soto-Hernandez, J. L. Severe cysticercal meningitis: clinical and imaging characteristics. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg.82, 121–125 (2010).

    PubMedPubMed Central Google Scholar

  54. 54

    Canelas, H. M. Ricciardi-Cruz, O. & Escalante, O. A. Cysticercosis of the nervous system: less frequent clinical forms. III. Spinal cord forms. Arq. Neuropsiquiatr.21, 77–86 (1963).

    CASPubMed Google Scholar

  55. 55

    Boulos, M. I., Aviv, R. I. & Lee, L. Spinal neurocysticercosis manifesting as recurrent aseptic meningitis. Can. J. Neurol. Sci.37, 878–880 (2010).

    PubMed Google Scholar

  56. 56

    Del Brutto, O. H. et al. Proposed diagnostic criteria for neurocysticercosis. Neurology57, 177–183 (2001).

    CASPubMedPubMed Central Google Scholar

  57. 57

    Schantz, P. M. et al. Neurocysticercosis in an Orthodox Jewish community in New York City. N. Engl. J. Med.327, 692–695 (1992).

    CASPubMed Google Scholar

  58. 58

    Del Brutto, O. H. et al. Epilepsy due to neurocysticercosis: analysis of 203 patients. Neurology42, 389–392 (1992).

    CASPubMed Google Scholar

  59. 59

    Cruz, M. E., Cruz, I., Preux, P. M., Schantz, P. & Dumas, M. Headache and cysticercosis in Ecuador, South America. Headache35, 93–97 (1995).

    CASPubMed Google Scholar

  60. 60

    Ciampi de Andrade, D. et al. Cognitive impairment and dementia in neurocysticercosis: a cross-sectional controlled study. Neurology74, 1288–1295 (2010).

    CAS Google Scholar

  61. 61

    Garcia, H. H. & Del Brutto, O. H. Imaging findings in neurocysticercosis. Acta Trop.87, 71–78 (2003).

    PubMed Google Scholar

  62. 62

    George, U., Bansal, G. & Rathore, S. MR spectroscopy aids diagnosis in subarachnoid space cysticercosis. Neurol. India58, 957–958 (2010).

    PubMed Google Scholar

  63. 63

    Dumas, J. L. et al. Parenchymal neurocysticercosis: follow up and staging by MRI. Neuroradiology39, 12–16 (1997).

    CASPubMed Google Scholar

  64. 64

    Wilson, M. et al. Clinical evaluation of the cysticercosis enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot in patients with neurocysticercosis. J. Infect. Dis.164, 1007–1009 (1991).

    CASPubMed Google Scholar

  65. 65

    Scheel, C. M. et al. Serodiagnosis of neurocysticercosis using synthetic 8-kD proteins: comparison of assay formats. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg.73, 771–776 (2005).

    CASPubMed Google Scholar

  66. 66

    Greene, R. M., Hancock, K., Wilkins, P. P. & Tsang, V. C. Taenia solium: molecular cloning and serologic evaluation of 14- and 18-kDa related, diagnostic antigens. J. Parasitol.86, 1001–1007 (2000).

    CASPubMed Google Scholar

  67. 67

    Handali, S. et al. Porcine antibody responses to Taenia solium antigens rGp50 and sTs18var1. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg.71, 322–326 (2004).

    PubMed Google Scholar

  68. 68

    Handali, S. et al. Development and evaluation of a magnetic immunochromatographic test to detect Taenia solium, which causes taeniasis and neurocysticercosis in humans. Clin. Vaccine Immunol.17, 631–637 (2010).

    CASPubMedPubMed Central Google Scholar

  69. 69

    Handali, S. et al. Multiantigen print immunoassay for comparison of diagnostic antigens for Taenia solium cysticercosis and taeniasis. Clin. Vaccine Immunol.17, 68–72 (2010).

    CASPubMed Google Scholar

  70. 70

    Garcia, H. H. et al. Strategies for the elimination of taeniasis/cysticercosis. J. Neurol. Sci.262, 153–157 (2007).

    PubMed Google Scholar

  71. 71

    Diaz, F. et al. Epidemiology of taeniasis and cysticercosis in a Peruvian village. The Cysticercosis Working Group in Peru. Am. J. Epidemiol.135, 875–882 (1992).

    CASPubMedPubMed Central Google Scholar

  72. 72

    Diaz, J. F. et al. Immunodiagnosis of human cysticercosis (Taenia solium): a field comparison of an antibody-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), an antigen-ELISA, and an enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot (EITB) assay in Peru. The Cysticercosis Working Group in Peru (CWG). Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg.46, 610–615 (1992).

    CASPubMed Google Scholar

  73. 73

    Rodriguez, S. et al. Detection of Taenia solium antigens and anti-T. solium antibodies in paired serum and cerebrospinal fluid samples from patients with intraparenchymal or extraparenchymal neurocysticercosis. J. Infect. Dis.199, 1345–1352 (2009).

    PubMedPubMed Central Google Scholar

  74. 74

    Bobes, R. J. et al. Subarachnoidal and intraventricular human neurocysticercosis: application of an antigen detection assay for the diagnosis and follow-up. Trop. Med. Int. Health11, 943–950 (2006).

    PubMed Google Scholar

  75. 75

    Zamora, H. et al. Drop in antigen levels following successful treatment of subarachnoid neurocysticercosis. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg.73, S41 (2005).

    Google Scholar

  76. 76

    Sinha, S. & Sharma, B. S. Neurocysticercosis: a review of current status and management. J. Clin. Neurosci.16, 867–876 (2009).

    PubMed Google Scholar

  77. 77

    Garcia, H. H. et al. Current consensus guidelines for treatment of neurocysticercosis. Clin. Microbiol. Rev.15, 747–756 (2002).

    PubMedPubMed Central Google Scholar

  78. 78

    Singh, G. et al. A diagnostic and therapeutic scheme for a solitary cysticercus granuloma. Neurology75, 2236–2245 (2010).

    CASPubMedPubMed Central Google Scholar

  79. 79

    Bittencourt, P. R. et al. Phenytoin and carbamazepine decrease oral bioavailability of praziquantel. Neurology42, 492–495 (1992).

    CASPubMed Google Scholar

  80. 80

    Garcia, H. H. et al. Pharmacokinetics of combined treatment with praziquantel and albendazole in neurocysticercosis. Br. J. Clin. Pharmacol.72, 77–84 (2011).

    CASPubMedPubMed Central Google Scholar

  81. 81

    Mall, R. K., Agarwal, A., Garg, R. K., Kar, A. M. & Shukla, R. Short course of prednisolone in Indian patients with solitary cysticercus granuloma and new-onset seizures. Epilepsia44, 1397–1401 (2003).

    CASPubMed Google Scholar

  82. 82

    Mitre, E., Talaat, K. R., Sperling, M. R. & Nash, T. E. Methotrexate as a corticosteroid-sparing agent in complicated neurocysticercosis. Clin. Infect. Dis.44, 549–553 (2007).

    CASPubMed Google Scholar

  83. 83

    Del Brutto, O. H., Roos, K. L., Coffey, C. S. & Garcia, H. H. Meta-analysis: cysticidal drugs for neurocysticercosis: albendazole and praziquantel. Ann. Intern. Med.145, 43–51 (2006).

    CASPubMed Google Scholar

  84. 84

    Carpio, A., Santillian, F., Leon, P., Flores, C. & Hauser, W. A. Is the course of neurocysticercosis modified by treatment with antihelminthic agents? Arch. Intern. Med.155, 1982–1988 (1995).

    CASPubMed Google Scholar

  85. 85

    Carpio, A. et al. Effects of albendazole treatment on neurocysticercosis: a randomised controlled trial. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry79, 1050–1055 (2008).

    CASPubMed Google Scholar

  86. 86

    Gonzalez, A. E. et al. Time–response curve of oxfendazole in the treatment of swine cysticercosis. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg.59, 832–836 (1998).

    CASPubMed Google Scholar

  87. 87

    Del Brutto, O. H. Medical treatment of cysticercosis—effective. Arch. Neurol.52, 102–104 (1995).

    CASPubMed Google Scholar

  88. 88

    Garcia, H. H. et al. A trial of antiparasitic treatment to reduce the rate of seizures due to cerebral cysticercosis. N. Engl. J. Med.350, 249–258 (2004).

    CASPubMed Google Scholar

  89. 89

    Vazquez, V. & Sotelo, J. The course of seizures after treatment for cerebral cysticercosis. N. Engl. J. Med.327, 696–701 (1992).

    CASPubMed Google Scholar

  90. 90

    Baranwal, A. K., Singhi, P. D., Khandelwal, N. & Singhi, S. C. Albendazole therapy in children with focal seizures and single small enhancing computerized tomographic lesions: a randomized, placebo-controlled, double blind trial. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J.17, 696–700 (1998).

    CASPubMed Google Scholar

  91. 91

    Kaur, M., Mahajan, R. C. & Malla, N. Diagnostic accuracy of rapid enzyme linked immunosorbent assay for the diagnosis of human hydatidosis. Indian J. Med. Res.110, 18–21 (1999).

    CASPubMed Google Scholar

  92. 92

    Kaur, P., Jost, R., Sivasithamparam, K. & Barbetti, M. J. Comparison of 1 week versus 4 weeks of albendazole therapy in single small enhancing computed tomography lesion. Neurol. India58, 560–564 (2010).

    PubMed Google Scholar

  93. 93

    Goel, D., Mittal, M., Bansal, K. K. & Singhal, A. Natural history of solitary cerebral cysticercosis cases after albendazole therapy: a longitudinal follow-up study from India. Acta Neurol. Scand.121, 204–208 (2010).

    CASPubMed Google Scholar

  94. 94

    Padma, M. V., Behari, M. Misra, N. K. & Ahuja, G. K. Albendazole in single CT ring lesions in epilepsy. Neurology44, 1344–1346 (1994).

    CASPubMed Google Scholar

  95. 95

    Rajshekhar, V. Albendazole therapy in patients with solitary cerebral cysticercus granuloma. Is it effective? J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry79, 238–239 (2008).

    PubMed Google Scholar

  96. 96

    Sotelo, J. et al. Comparison of therapeutic regimen of anticysticercal drugs for parenchymal brain cysticercosis. J. Neurol.237, 69–72 (1990).

    CASPubMed Google Scholar

  97. 97

    Corona, T., Lugo, R., Medina, R. & Sotelo, J. Single-day praziquantel therapy for neurocysticercosis. N. Engl. J. Med.334, 125 (1996).

    CASPubMed Google Scholar

  98. 98

    Pretell, E. J. et al. The Cysticercosis Working Group in Peru: failure of one-day praziquantel treatment in patients with multiple neurocysticercosis lesions. Clin. Neurol. Neurosurg.103, 175–177 (2001).

    CASPubMed Google Scholar

  99. 99

    Castro, N. et al. Population pharmacokinetics of albendazole in patients with neurocysticercosis. Int. J. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther.47, 679–685 (2009).

    CASPubMed Google Scholar

  100. 100

    Jung, H. & Gonzalez, D. Pharmacology of antycisticercal therapy in Taenia Solium Cysticercosis: from Basic to Clinical Science (eds Singh, G. & Prabhakar, S.) 363–374 (Centre for Agricultural Bioscience International, Wallingford, 2002).

    Google Scholar

  101. 101

    Guo, D. M., Xie, S. P. & Jia, J. P. Therapeutic efficacy of praziquantel, albendazole and a combination of the two drugs in cysticercosis. Zhongguo Ji Sheng Chong Xue Yu Ji Sheng Chong Bing Za Zhi21, 187–188 (2003).

    PubMed Google Scholar

  102. 102

    Kaur, S., Singhi, P. Singhi, S. & Khandewal, N. Combination therapy with albendazole and praziquantel versus albendazole alone in children with seizures and single lesion neurocysticercosis: a randomized, placebo-controlled double blind trial. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J.28 403–406 (2009).

    PubMed Google Scholar

  103. 103

    Bittencourt, P. R. et al. High-dose praziquantel for neurocysticercosis: efficacy and tolerability. Eur. Neurol.30, 229–234 (1990).

    CASPubMed Google Scholar

  104. 104

    Bittencourt, P. R., Gracia, C. M., Gorz, A. M. & Oliveira, T. V. High-dose praziquantel for neurocysticercosis: serum and CSF concentrations. Acta Neurol. Scand.82, 28–33 (1990).

    CASPubMed Google Scholar

  105. 105

    Overbosch, D. et al. Penetration of praziquantel into cerebrospinal fluid and cysticerci in human cysticercosis. Eur. J. Clin. Pharmacol.33, 287–292 (1987).

    CASPubMed Google Scholar

  106. 106

    Yee, T., Barakos, J. A. & Knight, R. T. High-dose praziquantel with cimetidine for refractory neurocysticercosis: a case report with clinical and MRI follow-up. West. J. Med.170, 112–115 (1999).

    CASPubMedPubMed Central Google Scholar

  107. 107

    Lima, R. M. et al. Albendazole–praziquantel interaction in healthy volunteers: kinetic disposition, metabolism and enantioselectivity. Br. J. Clin. Pharmacol.71, 528–535 (2011).

    CASPubMedPubMed Central Google Scholar

  108. 108

    Agapejev, S., Da Silva, M. D. & Ueda, A. K. Severe forms of neurocysticercosis: treatment with albendazole. Arq. Neuropsiquiatr.54, 82–93 (1996).

    CASPubMed Google Scholar

  109. 109

    Cardenas, G. et al. Subarachnoidal neurocysticercosis non-responsive to cysticidal drugs: a case series. BMC Neurol.10, 16 (2010).

    PubMedPubMed Central Google Scholar

  110. 110

    Gongora-Rivera, F. et al. Albendazole trial at 15 or 30 mg/kg/day for subarachnoid and intraventricular cysticercosis. Neurology66, 436–438 (2006).

    CASPubMed Google Scholar

  111. 111

    Rajshekhar, V. Surgical management of neurocysticercosis. Int. J. Surg.8, 100–104 (2010).

    PubMed Google Scholar

  112. 112

    Torres-Corzo, J. G. et al. Endoscopic management of hydrocephalus due to neurocysticercosis. Clin. Neurol. Neurosurg.112, 11–16 (2010).

    PubMed Google Scholar

  113. 113

    Jimenez-Vazquez, O. H. & Nagore, N. Cisternal neurocysticercosis. Br. J. Neurosurg.22, 774–775 (2008).

    CASPubMed Google Scholar

  114. 114

    Jimenez-Vazquez, O. H. & Nagore, N. Role of neuroendoscopy in the treatment of large viable cysticerci in the brain parenchyma. Br. J. Neurosurg.22, 682–683 (2008).

    CASPubMed Google Scholar

  115. 115

    Bergsneider, M. Endoscopic removal of cysticercal cysts within the fourth ventricle. Technical note. J. Neurosurg.91, 340–345 (1999).

    CASPubMed Google Scholar

  116. 116

    Bergsneider, M., Holly, L. T., Lee, J. H., King, W. A. & Frazee, J. G. Endoscopic management of cysticercal cysts within the lateral and third ventricles. J. Neurosurg.92, 14–23 (2000).

    CASPubMed Google Scholar

Download references

Acknowledgements

This work was supported in part by the Intramural Research Program of the National Institutes of Health, National Institutes of Allergy and Infection Diseases. H. H. Garcia is a Wellcome Trust International Senior Research Fellow.

Author information

Affiliations

  1. Gastrointestinal Parasites Section, Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, National Institutes of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, 9000 Rockville Pike, Building 4, Room B1-01, Bethesda, 20892, MD, USA

    Theodore E. Nash

  2. Cysticercosis Unit, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Neurologicas, Jr Ancash 1271, Lima, Perú

    Hector H. Garcia

Contributions

T. E. Nash and H. H. Garcia contibuted equally to researching the data for the article, discussion of the article content, writing the article and reviewing and/or editing the manuscript before submission.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Hector H. Garcia.

Ethics declarations

Competing interests

The authors declare no competing financial interests.

About this article

Cite this article

Nash, T., Garcia, H. Diagnosis and treatment of neurocysticercosis. Nat Rev Neurol7, 584–594 (2011). https://doi.org/10.1038/nrneurol.2011.135

Download citation

Share this article

Anyone you share the following link with will be able to read this content:

Sorry, a shareable link is not currently available for this article.

Provided by the Springer Nature SharedIt content-sharing initiative

Further reading

  • Next-generation sequencing combined with serological tests based pathogen analysis for a neurocysticercosis patient with a 20-year history:a case report

    • Bin Chen
    • , Zheng Chen
    • , Yi-shu Yang
    • , Gui-lan Cai
    • , Xiao-jiao Xu
    • , Hong-zhi Guan
    • , Hai-tao Ren
    •  & Hou-zhen Tuo

    BMC Neurology (2021)

  • Late-onset paradoxical reactions 10 years after treatment for tuberculous meningitis in an HIV-negative patient: a case report

    • Akira Machida
    • , Tasuku Ishihara
    • , Eiichiro Amano
    •  & Shinichi Otsu

    BMC Infectious Diseases (2018)

  • Recent Advances in the Diagnosis of Neurocysticercosis

    • Nicholas A. Gadea
    • , Gabriela Matamoros
    •  & Maria Mercedes Rueda

    Current Treatment Options in Infectious Diseases (2018)

  • Infections of the Central Nervous System in Returning Travelers and Immigrants

    • Haley Thompson
    •  & Kiran Thakur

    Current Infectious Disease Reports (2017)

  • A comprehensive review of imaging findings in human cysticercosis

    • Bargavee Venkat
    • , Neeti Aggarwal
    • , Sushma Makhaik
    •  & Ramgopal Sood

    Japanese Journal of Radiology (2016)

Sours: https://www.nature.com/articles/nrneurol.2011.135

Of neurocysticercosis treatment

I can also say that when he occasionally came to swim in our pool, his powerful package between his legs was filled to. The brim with powerful genitals. Known in family circles as the real Don Juan, the filles a la pelle bachelor style, it was his renomme, even.

What is neurocysticercosis?

But there was only one hand and Irka, standing up, began to help push it further. I thought to myself that the girl hadn't had a man for a long time. Later it turned out that my thoughts were true. Tankin's husband had been absent for two weeks.

Now discussing:

After that, Sasha lay exhausted on Andrey's back for some time. Then, with difficulty, he raised himself and pulled out from Andrei's ass his beginning to fall off, but still strong member. He came out of his ass with a banging sound. Andrei, who could not move his legs, due to the fact that everything inside him was burning as if pepper had been poured into his ass, lay down on the.

Bench, streams of sperm flowed from his butt torn apart by a big member of Sasha.



11673 11674 11675 11676 11677