Spanish conjunctions chart

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Spanish Verb Conjugation: Helpful Charts & Tips

A big part of learning to speak Spanish is an understanding of basic grammar rules — and one of the first things you’ll need to know is Spanish verb conjugation.

Let’s start with the most important question: why is it important to learn conjugation? Conjugation enables us to use verbs to describe real live situations and events.

Without knowing how to conjugate verbs we would not be able to form coherent sentences. Just like in English, conjugating verbs (along with other Spanish grammar basics) is essential to learning the language.

Even though most native English-speakers don’t know this, we conjugate verbs all the time in English. Let’s use the example of the verb to watch in English. To conjugate it, we say:

  • I watch
  • You watch
  • He/she watches
  • We watch
  • They watch

As you can see, verb conjugation in English is quite simple. Almost all English verbs only have two variants when conjugating (i.e. watch vs. watches), with the exception of the verb to be which has three variants:

  • I am
  • You are
  • He is
  • We are
  • They are

How to Conjugate Spanish Verbs

Spanish, on the other hand, always conjugates verbs into five variants. Let’s use the same example of the verb to watch in Spanish, which is mirar.

  • Yo miro
  • Tú miras
  • Él/Ella/Usted mira
  • Nosotros miramos
  • Ellas/Ellos/Ustedes miran

Again, as you can see, Spanish breaks down verbs into five different ending variants, which can feel overwhelming and confusing. Learning how it works can appear complicated at first, but luckily you can use the formula below that makes it so easy, it will become second nature.

Start with the following three steps to conjugate Spanish verbs:How to Conjugate Spanish Verbs


How to Conjugate -ar Verbs in Spanish

Let’s take mirar (to watch), for example:

  • If you are referring to ‘yo’ or ‘I,’ add the letter ‘o’ to end the conjugated verb, forming miro.
  • If you are referring to ‘tú’ or ‘you,’ use the ending ‘as,’ to form miras.
  • If you are referring to ‘él’ or ‘ella” or ‘he or she,’ use the ending ‘a,’ to form mira.
  • If you are referring to ‘nosotros’ or ‘we,’ use the ending ‘amos’ to form miramos.
  • If you are referring to ‘ellos’ or ‘they,’ use the ending ‘an,’ to form miran.

How to Conjugate -er Verbs in Spanish

Let’s take comer (to eat), for example:

  • ‘Yo’ stays the same here, with the ‘o’ ending, just like -ar verbs, to form como.
  • If you are referring to ‘tú’ or ‘you,’ use the ending ‘es,’ to form comes.
  • If you are referring to ‘él’ or ‘ella” or ‘he or she,’ use the ending ‘e,’ to form come.
  • If you are referring to ‘nosotros’ or ‘we,’ use the ending ‘emos,’ to form comemos.
  • If you are referring to ‘ellos’ or ‘they,’ use the ending ‘en,’ to form comen.

How to Conjugate -ir Verbs in Spanish

  • These verbs follow the same rules as with -er verbs, except that in the nosotros (we) form, the ending becomes -imos instead of -emos.

Here’s a great Spanish verb conjugation chart from that summarizes these rules:

spanish verb conjugation chart

Spanish Conjugation Chart for More Practice

Use a simple chart like the one below, and practice conjugating each of the verbs.

Spanish conjugation chart

It seems easy, right? The formula is straightforward but it does get a little tricky when the verbs are “stem-changers” or irregular, which a Spanish tutor can help you understand in more detail. Additionally, conjugation in Spanish varies significantly when the tense changes to past or future.

What About Vosotros?

As you’re working on your Spanish conjugation practice, you may notice that some charts have a space for vosotros conjugation, while others don’t. Spain is the only Spanish-speaking country that actually breaks down verbs into six variants, not five, which commonly isn’t taught in Spanish classes in the United States. Here, Spain makes a distinction between “they” and “you all,” which is used interchangeably in all other Spanish-speaking countries, as speakers use contextual cues to decipher the difference.

Want Extra Spanish Conjugation Practice?

Check out the CoolJugator, a free online Spanish verb conjugator that makes practicing easy. Search for any verb, and you’ll see all of the conjugations, as well as examples in Spanish along with the English translation.

Of course, your Spanish tutor will also have recommendations for exercises and activities to try. This article will get you started, but a Spanish tutor will be able to really help you conjugate Spanish verbs with mastery!

Photo by The LEAF Project


Spanish Conjunctions: Building Blocks Of Conversation

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What exactly do we mean by the term, Spanish Conjunctions?

Let’s imagine that your best friend Juan is helping you to study Spanish.

He asks you if would prefer to have coffee or tea. He also prepares some snacks because he’s starving and needs some sugar so that he will be able to concentrate better.

The above words in bold are all conjunctions (conjunción in Spanish), as they are words that help connect other words or phrases.

We use these words to add information, to express a contrast, or to introduce an explanation, among other functions.

Learning the most common Spanish conjunctions will help you express your ideas more fluently, and keep the conversation flowing.

Spanish Conjunctions: What You Need To Know

In the next section, we will explore the two different types of Spanish conjunctions.

1) Coordinating Spanish Conjunctions

As their name suggests, coordinating conjunctions coordinate, join, or provide a link between two or more words (nouns, verbs, people, etc.) or phrases, in a sentence.

These can be further classified into different types, depending on their function.

For example:

  • Carlos and Mariana speak Mandarin – Carlos y Mariana hablan mandarín
  • Do you want to eat pizza or pasta? – ¿Quieres comer pizza o pasta?
  • My family is gonna visit me in January, but they will not stay much time – Mi familia va a visitarme en Enero, pero no se quedará mucho tiempo

Let’s take a look at each category below.

A) Expressing Addition

In Spanish, these words are called “conjunciones copulativas”, but all you need to know is that their main use is to add elements in a sentence.

Spanish ConjunctionEnglish Equivalent

There are two rules that you need to keep in mind when using these words.

Rule #1: For phonetic reasons, the conjunction “y” is always replaced with “e” when the following word starts with an “i” or “hi.

Let’s take a look at some examples:

  • You must wear a coat and a wool hat because of the cold – Debes usar un abrigo y un gorro de lana por el frío
  • Javier and Isabel have gone to the christmas party – Javier e Isabel han ido a la fiesta navideña
  • I would like to visit countries such as Brazil and Italy – Me gustaría visitar países como Brasil e Italia
  • She had read the first and the second chapter of that book – Ella había leído el primer y el segundo capítulo de ese libro

Rule #2: We use the Spanish conjunction “ni…ni” when negating two or more elements in a sentence. In this type of construction, it’s possible to omit the first “ni” as the sentence will already include the negation word “no:


  • I like neither soup nor salad – No me gusta ni la sopa ni la ensalada
  • She wanted neither coffee nor tea – Ella no quería café ni té
  • Rafael is buying neither the Ferrari nor the Lambo – Rafael no comprará ni el Ferrari ni el Lamborghini

B) Giving an alternative

These Spanish conjunctions are called “conjunciones disyuntivas”.

More importantly, their main function is to indicate alternatives or differences.

Spanish ConjunctionEnglish Equivalent
O bienEither…Or

Again, these words have two rules that you need to know.

Rule #1: For phonetic reasons, the conjunction “o” is replaced with “u” when the following word starts with “o” or “ho”.

For example:

  • Seven or eight people might be coming – Vendrán unas siete u ocho personas
  • Would you like to visit Aruba or Curacao? – ¿Te gustaría visitar Aruba o Curazao?
  • The passengers can either travel by air or by sea – Los pasajeros pueden viajar en avión o bien en barco

Rule #2: You need to add an accent to the vowel “o” when it between two numbers.


  • I am going to visit Ecuador for 1 or 2 months – Voy a visitar Ecuador por 1 ó 2 meses
  • How many ice creams did you eat? 4 or 5? – ¿Cuántos helados comiste? ¿4 ó 5?
  • How many languages does Claudia speak? 3 or 4? – ¿Cuántos idiomas habla Claudia? ¿3 ó 4?

C) Expressing Contrast

These Spanish conjunctions are used to deny or contrast the first element and affirm the second.

They are better known as “conjunciones adversativas” in Spanish.

Spanish ConjunctionEnglish Equivalent
AunqueAlthough, Even though
Sin embargoHowever
No obstanteHowever (formal), Nevertheless
De otra manera, de otro modo, si noOtherwise, Apart from that
ExceptoExcept for, Except, Apart from, But

For example:

  • I want to learn playing guitar but I don’t have enough time – Quiero aprender a tocar la guitarra pero no tengo tiempo suficiente
  • My brother used to go swimming every friday, however he never went to a competition – Mi hermano solía ir a nadar cada viernes sin embargo nunca fue a una competencia
  • It’s a long movie although it is entertaining – Es una película muy larga aunque es entretenida

D) Giving an explanation

The last group of Spanish conjunctions in this category are used to join two phrases or sentences, normally one explains or adds information which clarifies the idea of the other.

They are known under the name of “Conjunciones Explicativas” in Spanish.

Spanish ConjunctionEnglish Equivalent
O seaIn other words, That is to say
Es decirIn other words
Más bienRather

For example:

  • Mauricio is 18 years old, in other words he’s an adult in Venezuela – Mauricio tiene 18 años, es decir es mayor de edad en Venezuela
  • I have a house, rather, I have a mortgage – Tengo una casa, más bien, lo que tengo es una hipoteca
  • Martha is my brother’s wife, in other words she’s my sister in law – Martha es la esposa de mi hermano, o sea es mi cuñada

And now, onto the second category.

2) Subordinating Spanish Conjunctions

Subordinating conjunctions’ main purpose is to link two ideas that are dependant on each other. In other words, using these conjunctions on their own won’t work – you need two ideas.

Let’s look at these by category.

A) Giving a reason

in Spanish, these are known as “conjunciones causales” and are used to carry out the function of indicating the cause, expressed in the main proposition.

Spanish ConjunctionEnglish Equivalent
PuesAs, so
Puesto queGiven that
Ya queSince

For example:

  • Karen is not going to the beach because she has too much work to do – Karen no podrá ir a la playa porque tiene muchísimo trabajo
  • I’m travelling Mexico next year since I wanna visit Oaxaca – Viajaré a México el año próximo ya que quiero visitar Oaxaca
  • Andrés went to bed early so he was exhausted – Andrés fue a dormir temprano pues estaba muy cansado

B) Expressing a condition

These Spanish conjunctions indicate a condition or need, in order to verify a circumstance expressed in a sentence.

In Spanish, they are known as “conjunciones condicionales”.

Spanish ConjunctionEnglish Equivalent
Con tal queSo that
Siempre queAs long as

For example:

  • If we don’t leave now we’re going to miss the train – Como no salgamos ya, vamos a perder el tren
  • We go to the mountains as long as there is a good weather – Vamos a la montaña siempre que haya buen clima
  • It doesn’t matter what time you go to sleep so that you wake up early in the morning – No importa la hora que te duermas con tal que te levantes temprano

c) Expressing an aim

These Spanish conjunctions denote the purpose or focus of the statement in the main sentence.

In Spanish, they are called “conjunciones finales”.

Spanish ConjunctionEnglish Equivalent
A fin de queIn order to, So that
Para queSo that

For example:

  • I will explain it twice in order to have no misunderstandings – A fin de que no hayan confusiones, lo explicaré dos veces
  • These are some suggestions so that you learn how to play Poker – Estas son algunas sugerencias para que aprendas a jugar Poker

Spanish Conjunctions: Practice

Choose the correct Conjunction (Coordinating or Subordinating type) for each sentence

  1. No iré a trabajar ___ estoy enferma (porque / para que / o sea)
  2. El muchacho le preguntó a varias personas ___ nadie le respondió (o / mas bien / pero)
  3. Fabiola tiene que ir al médico ____ no quiere (o / aunque / puesto que)
  4. El gato maúlla ___ lo alimentes (para que / pues / si)
  5. Como frutas ___ es bueno para la salud (al fin de que / no obstante / porque)
  6. ¿Te gustaría al cine ___ al teatro? (o / pero / si)
  7. ___ tienes tiempo podríamos cocinar juntos (si / aunque / ya que)
  8. Mis colores favoritos son el púrpura ___ (sin embargo / y / mas bien)
  9. Maritza no pudo comprar ___ la comida ___ el vino (ni…ni / siempre que / excepto)
  10. Puedes salir a jugar con tus amigos ___ termines tu tarea primero (u / con tal que / o bien)
  11. César quiere aprender a nadar ___ no puede porque le teme al agua (sin embargo / como / y)
  12. ¿Qué tipo de películas te gustan, comedia ___ horror? (no obstante / u / para que)
  13. Llegare a la fiesta en 10 ___ 15 minutos (o / ó / y)
  14. Mi hermano ha invitado a Carolina, Marcos ___ Indira a la fiesta (y / o / e)
  15. Mi esposa y yo nos divorciamos, ___ ya no vivimos juntos (es decir / ni…ni / con tal que)


Choose the correct Conjunction (Coordinating or Subordinating type) for each sentence

  1. No iré a trabajar porque estoy enferma.
  2. El muchacho le preguntó a varias personas pero nadie le respondió.
  3. Fabiola tiene que ir al médico aunque no quiere.
  4. El gato maúlla para que lo alimentes.
  5. Como frutas pues es bueno para la salud.
  6. ¿Te gustaría al cine o al teatro?
  7. Si tienes tiempo podríamos cocinar juntos.
  8. Mis colores favoritos son el púrpura y el azul índigo.
  9. Maritza no pudo comprar ni la comida ni el vino.
  10. Puedes salir a jugar con tus amigos con tal que termines tu tarea primero.
  11. César quiere aprender a nadar sin embargo no puede porque le teme al agua.
  12. ¿Qué tipo de películas te gustan, comedia u horror?
  13. Llegare a la fiesta en 10 ó 15 minutos.
  14. Mi hermano ha invitado a Carolina, Marcos e Indira a la fiesta.
  15. Mi esposa y yo nos divorciamos, es decir ya no vivimos juntos.


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Spanish Conjunctions

Conjunctions (lasconjunciones) join two coordinating parts of a sentence together.

Here are a few of the most common conjunctions you'll come across in Spanish.

Common Spanish Conjunctions

but, rather

¿Quieres una manzanaouna naranja?

Do you want an apple or an orange?

Hablo inglésyespañol.

I speak English and Spanish.

Quiere aprender italiano,perono tiene tiempo.

He wants to learn Italian, but doesn’t have the time.

Tricky Conjunctions

Pero, Sino, and Mas

These three conjunctions can all be translated as but, but they're not interchangeable.

Pero and Mas

Pero and mas mean but and are used to contrast two statements. However, mas is considered to be more literary, and is something you're much more likely to see in formal writing.


Quieren viajar a Costa Rica,perono tienen suficiente dinero.

They want to travel to Costa Rica, but they don’t have enough money.

Soy joven,masno soy ingenuo.

I'm young, but I'm not naïve.


Sino also means but, but is used to introduce an affirmation that contrasts a previous negative statement.


Mi hermano no es alto,sinobajo.

My brother isn’t tall, but short.

No vine a escuchar,sinoa cantar.

I didn’t come to listen, but to sing.

Y and E

When y comes before a word that begins with a i- or hi-, it changes to an e.

Y does not change to e before words that begin with hie-.


Hablo españoleinglés.

I speak Spanish and English.

Necesito productos de limpiezaehigiene.

I need cleaning and hygiene products.

Hay que ponerle azúcaryhielo al té.

We need to add sugar and ice to the tea.

O and U

When o comes before a word that begins with a o- or ho-, it changes to a u.


¿Quieres ir a Nueva YorkuOrlando?

Do you want to go to New York or Orlando?

Debes decir "buenos días"u"hola".

You should say "good morning" or "hello."


Basic Spanish conjunctions and their usage

A conjunction is a word used to link or conjoin words or phrases into a coherent whole. There are two classes of conjunctions: coordinate and subordinate. In this article, you can find a list of some most common Spanish conjunctions.

Basic spanish conjunctions and how to use

Spanish conjunctions and guide on how to use

List of common Spanish conjunctions

Since different conjunctions have different meanings. So here we classified them by functions

1. Coordinating conjunctions

These conjunctions are used to link sentences with a similar or equivalent meaning.

Copulative conjunctions

Used to coordinate words that have the same function.

  • And - y
  • And - e
  • Neither, nor - ni


Él es muy inteligente y responsible - He is very smart and responsible
No comió ni bebió agua - He did not eat or drink water

Disjunctive conjunction

Join words/sentences that express different alternatives or choice among options.

  • Or – u
  • Either, or – o
  • Either, or – sea
  • Either, or - bien


o él cocinarán - Either you or he will cook
O nos ayudas o te vas - Either you help us or you leave
Respondes bien con frialdad, bien con passion - You answer either with coldness, or with passion

Adversative conjunctions

Used to indicate opposition among elements they join.

  • But – pero
  • However - mas
  • But, rather – sino
  • Nevertheless, however – sin embargo
  • On the contrary – antes bien
  • Regardless – no obstante
  • But – menos
  • Even if - más que
  • Apart from – Fuera de
  • Except – excepto
  • Except (for) – salvo
  • Rather than - Más bien que


Your mother will not come to party, however you should come - Tu mamá no vendrá a l fiesta, sin embargo tu si tienes que venir
Quería un helado, pero no tenía dinero - I wanted an ice cream, but I did not have enough money

2. Subordinate conjunctions

These conjunctions are used in order to to link the components of a sentence yet subordinate one to another.

Causual subordinate conjunctions

Used to indicate causes, reasons, or motives.

  • Because – porque/pues
  • Because – a causa de que
  • Given that - dado que
  • In as much as - por cuanto
  • Since, seeing that – ya que
  • Although, since, as long as – puesto que
  • Since – pues que
  • As, since – como
  • Of – de que
  • That, because – que


Ella no vino, porque había llovido - She did not come, because it had rained
Puesto que no veniste, tuve que estudiar solo - Since you did not come, I had to study by myself

Consecutive conjunctions

Used to express the logical result of an action

  • Therefore - así puesv/ por consiguientev/ por lo tanto
  • Then – luego
  • That’s why - así que


¿Quieres dinero?, pues trabaja! - Do you want money? Then work!
Ella no comprendía, por lo tanto se fué - She did not understand, therefore she left

Conditional conjunctions

Used to express the condition that must be met to realize what is indicated in the principal sentence,

  • If – si
  • Provided that - siempre que
  • In case that – en caso de que


Comeremos conejo siempre que lo cazemos - We will eat rabbit provided that we hunt it

Purpose conjunctions

Used to express the aim or the purpose of an action of something.

  • In order that, so that - a fin de que / para que
  • With the purpose of - Con el objeto de que / Con el fin de que


Trabajó duro con el fin de que pudiera comprarse un coche - He worked hard with the purpose of buying a car

Concessive conjunctions

Used to express difficulty in fulfilling something

  • Although – aunque
  • Even if – aun cuando
  • Despite – a pesar de que


Aunque le disgustaba bailar, bailó toda la noche - Although he didn't like to dance, he danced all night long

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Chart spanish conjunctions

Spanish conjugation chart

Let's take some examples:

Verb - Stem - Gerund
Hablar - Habl - Hablando (talking)
Caminar - Camin - Caminando (walking)
Comer - Com - Comiendo (eating)
Dormir - Dorm - Dormiendo (sleeping)
Vender - Vend - Vendiendo (selling)
Beber - Beb - Bebiendo (drinking)
Comprar - Compr - Comprando (buying)

Now that you know how to make the gerund, all you will need is to put I am, you are etc. in front of it:

yo estoy + gerund
tú estás + gerund
él está + gerund
nosotros estamos + gerund
vosotros estáis + gerund
ellos están + gerund

To give you some examples:

Estoy caminando - I am walking
Estan escuchando - They are listening
Estamos comprando - We are buying

Conjugate with the participle in Spanish

In Spanish there are seven simple tenses. The most important onces we have listed on the conjugation chart and in the lists above. There are also seven compound tenses. We have good news for you. The second compound tenses are always a conjugation of the verb Haber + the partiple (in Spanish known as the participio).

To learn how to use it you first need to learn how to make the participle of a spanish verb.

Learn Spanish Verbs: Present, past, and future of SER, ESTAR, TENER, IR

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