Aztec fire god

Aztec fire god DEFAULT

Huehueteotl

Mesoamerican deity figuring in the pantheons of pre-Columbian cultures

HuehueteotlWAY-way-TAY-oh-təl; Nahuatl pronunciation: [weːweˈteoːt͡ɬ] is an aged Mesoamerican deity figuring in the pantheons of pre-Columbian cultures, particularly in Aztec mythology and others of the Central Mexico region. The spellings Huehuetéotl and Ueueteotl are also used. Although known mostly in the cultures of that region, images and iconography depicting Huehueteotl have been found at other archaeological sites across Mesoamerica, such as in the Gulf region, western Mexico, Protoclassic-era sites in the Guatemalan highlands such as Kaminaljuyú and Late-Postclassic sites on the northern Yucatán Peninsula (Miller and Taube, 1993:189). The name Huehueteotl stems from Nahuatlhuēhueh[ˈweːweʔ] ("old") and teōtl[ˈteoːt͡ɬ] ("god"). It seems to connect the Old God to certain Mayan deities called Mam ("Grandfather").

Huehueteotl is frequently considered to overlap with, or be another aspect of, a central Mexican/Aztec deity associated with fire, Xiuhtecuhtli. In particular the Florentine Codex identifies Huehueteotl as an alternative epithet for Xiutecuhtli, and consequently that deity is sometimes referred to as Xiutecuhtli-Huehueteotl.

However, Huehueteotl is characteristically depicted as an aged or even decrepit being, often with a beard, whereas Xiutecuhtli's appearance is much more youthful and vigorous, in line with his marked association with rulership and (youthful) warriors.[1][2]

Worship[edit]

The Florentine Codex[3] describes an Aztec religious observance during the monthly feast of Izcalli (dedicated to Xiuhtecuhtli and Tlaloc), when boys had to hunt in the swamps for small water-related animals, such as snakes, lizards, frogs and even dragonfly larvae, and present these to elders serving as the guardians of the fire deity. As a reward for the offerings, the priest would give them steamed corn dough (tamales) stuffed with amaranth greens. At this occasion the god was represented as young with turquoise and quetzal feathers for ceremonial purposes. Later during the month he appeared as aging and tired, covered with the colours of gold, black and red. Perhaps this transformation of young into old can explain the fact that in the codices, Xiuhtecuhtli appears as a vigorous young man, whereas his representations in stone show him to be aged and decrepit.

In another, more dramatic, and better known celebration, the Aztecs cut out the hearts of human sacrifices and burned them on coal. As a result of this, the people would regain Huehueteotl's favour through the god's elements — fire and blood.

References[edit]

External links[edit]

Media related to Huehueteotl at Wikimedia Commons

Sours: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Huehueteotl

HUEHUETEOTL

The old old Aztec God. He carries a representative fire bowl upon his head.

Every 52 years (an Aztec century), the Gods’ contract with mankind would come up for renewal, and this always caused much panic among the paranoid.

Negotiations were kept free of legal mumbo jumbo as the Aztecs opted for chucking a bunch of victims on the bonfire. This always seemed to do the trick and Huehueteotl was more than happy to sign up for another 52 years. Result: celebrations, feasts, gather round the hearth, keep the home fires burning etc.

Huehueteotl also has an address: The Pole Star. Zip code unknown. He may or may not have Chalchiuhtlicue for his wife. Perhaps a little bit of flooding on the side?

Name: Huehueteotl
Pronunciation: Coming soon
Alternative names: Ueueteotl, Xiuhtecuhtli, Xiutecuhtli

Gender: Male
Type: God
Celebration or Feast Day: Unknown at present

In charge of: Fire
Area of expertise: Fire

Good/Evil Rating: GOOD, quite approachable
Popularity index: 2957

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Article last revised on October 30, 2018 by Rowan Allen.
Editors: Peter J. Allen, Chas Saunders

References: Coming soon.

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God of Fire

Xiuhtecuhtli (pronounced she-wa-teh-KWA-tlee) was the God of Fire, but he also represented the daytime as well as heat. Another name for him was the Turquoise Lord. The Aztecs believed that he created the Aztec people, as well as all life around them. They believed that anywhere there was fire, that Xiuhtecuhtli was inside that fire. The Turquoise Lord was very important to the Aztecs and had many purposes. Three of those jobs include: keeping the Aztecs warm, giving them light, and providing food.

The God of Fire was usually drawn either with a turquoise color, because he was the Turquoise Lord, or as a snake. Aztecs that held certain jobs would pray to different gods; for example, if you were a farmer, you would pray to the god of farming. And if you were alive during the Aztec Period and were a warrior or a ruler, one of the gods you would have spent a lot of time praying to was the God of Fire.

Mask

New Fire Ceremony

Xiuhtecuhtli had many jobs for the Aztecs, but his most important role was to watch the New Fire Ceremony. When you go to the store to buy a calendar, you buy it for just one year. The Aztec calendar was 52 years long! At the end of the 52nd year, they had the New Fire Ceremony to honor the God of Fire and make sure the sun would rise as the new calendar started. The Aztecs were afraid that the Gods wouldn't want to stay and protect the Aztecs for the next 52 years.

The Aztec rulers were also afraid that if the gods left, then they would take the sun with them as well. The ceremony was to make sure the gods and the sun wouldn't leave for the next full calendar. As a way of convincing the gods to stay, they would have a huge feast, which is like a big party with a lot of food, in the God of Fire's honor. They would also light a new fire as a symbol of the new calendar starting.

Lesson Summary

Xiuhtecuhtli, also known as the Turquoise Lord, was the God of Fire in Aztec culture. He was the creator of all life. He provided warmth, light, and food to the Aztec people. Every 52 years the Aztecs would have a New Fire Ceremony to honor him and make sure the gods would stay and the sun would come up for the next 52 years.

Sours: https://study.com/academy/lesson/the-aztec-god-of-fire-lesson-for-kids.html

XIUHTECUHTLI

See Huehueteotl. Someone has given us the old old spelling, presumably so he can be with the X Files.

GodNote: Sorry this Xiuhtecuhtli article is a bit short. We have sent our Data Dwarves off to find more nuggets of information. Updates coming soon.

Name: Xiuhtecuhtli
Pronunciation: Coming soon
Alternative names: Xiutecuhtli

Gender: Male
Type: God
Celebration or Feast Day: Unknown at present

In charge of: Fire
Area of expertise: Fire

Good/Evil Rating: OKAY, not bad
Popularity index: 1279

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Article last revised on April 09, 2019 by the Godchecker data dwarves.
Editors: Peter J. Allen, Chas Saunders

References: Coming soon.

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God aztec fire

Profile of Huehueteotl-Xiuhtecuhtli, Aztec God of Fire

Among the Aztec/Mexica, the fire god was associated with another ancient deity, the old god. For this reason, these figures are often considered different aspects of the same deity: Huehuetéotl-Xiuhtecuhtli (Pronounced: Way-ue-TEE-ottle, and Shee-u-teh-COO-tleh). As with many polytheist cultures, ancient Mesoamerican people worshiped many gods who represented the different forces and manifestations of nature. Among these elements, fire was one of the first to be deified.

The names under which we know these gods are Nahuatl terms, which is the language spoken by the Aztec/Mexica, so we don’t know how earlier cultures knew these deities. Huehuetéotl is the “Old God”, from huehue, old, and teotl, god, whereas Xiuhtecuhtli means “The lord of Turquoise,” from the suffix xiuh, turquoise, or precious, and tecuhtli, lord, and he was considered the progenitor of all gods, as well as the patron of fire and the year.

Origins

Huehueteotl-Xiuhtecuhtli was an extremely important god beginning in very early times in Central Mexico. In the Formative (Preclassic) site of Cuicuilco, south of Mexico City, statues portraying an old man sitting and holding a brazier on his head or his back, have been interpreted as images of the old god and the fire god.

At Teotihuacan, the most important metropolis of the Classic period, Huehuetéotl-Xiuhtecuhtli is one of the most often represented deities. Again, his images portray an old man, with wrinkles on his face and no teeth, sitting with his legs crossed, holding a brazier on his head. The brazier is often decorated with rhomboid figures and cross-like signs symbolizing the four world directions with the god sitting in the middle.

The period for which we have more information about this god is the Postclassic period, thanks to the importance that this god had among the Aztec/Mexica.

Attributes

According to the Aztec religion, Huehuetéotl-Xiuhtecuhtli was associated with ideas of purification, transformation, and regeneration of the world through fire. As the god of the year, he was associated with the cycle of the seasons and nature which regenerate the earth. He was also considered one of the founding deities of the world since he was responsible for the creation of the sun.

According to colonial sources, the fire god had his temple in the sacred precinct of Tenochtitlan, in a place called Tzonmolco.

Huehuetéotl-Xiuhtecuhtli is also related to the ceremony of the New Fire, one of the most important Aztec ceremonies, which took place at the end of each cycle of 52 years and represented the regeneration of the cosmos through the lighting of a new fire.

Festivities

Two major festivities were dedicated to Huehuetéotl-Xiuhtecuhtli: the Xocotl Huetzi ceremony, in August, associated to the underworld, the night, and the dead, and a second one which took place in the month of Izcalli, at the beginning of February, related to light, warmness and the dry season.

  • Xocotl Huetzi: This ceremony was related to the collection of the fruits of the earth and the ritual death of plants. It involved cutting a tree and placing an image of the god on the top. Copal and food were then offered to the tree. Young men were encouraged to climb the tree to get the image and gain a reward. Four captured people were sacrificed by being thrown into a fire and by having their hearts extracted.
  • Izcalli: This second festival was dedicated to regrowth and regeneration, and the beginning of the new year. All lights were shut down at night, except for one light placed in front of the god's image, including a turquoise mask. People brought game such as birds, lizards, and snakes to cook and eat. Every four years, the ceremony included the sacrifice of four enslaved people, who were dressed like the god and whose bodies were painted in white, yellow, red, and green, the colors associated with the world's directions.

Images

Since early times, Huehuetéotl-Hiuhtecuhtli was portrayed, mainly in statues, as an old man, with his legs crossed, his arms resting on his legs, and holding a lit brazier on his head or back. His face shows the signs of age, quite wrinkled and without teeth. This type of sculpture is the most widespread and recognizable image of the god and has been found in many offerings in sites such as Cuicuilco, ​Capilco, Teotihuacan, Cerro de las Mesas, and the Templo Mayor of Mexico City.

However, as Xiuhtecuhtli, the god is often represented in pre-Hispanic as well as Colonial codices without these characteristics. In these cases, his body is yellow, and his face has black stripes, a red circle surrounds his mouth, and he has blue earplugs hanging from his ears. He often has arrows emerging from his headdress and holds sticks used to light fire.

Sources:

  • Limón Silvia, 2001, El Dios del fuego y la regeneración del mundo, en Estudios de Cultura Náhuatl, N. 32, UNAM, Mexico, pp. 51-68.
  • Matos Moctezuma, Eduardo, 2002, Huehuetéotl-Xiuhtecuhtli en el Centro de México, Arqueología Mexicana Vol. 10, N. 56, pp 58-63.
  • Sahagún, Bernardino de, Historia General de las Cosas de Nueva España, Alfredo López Austin y Josefina García Quintana (eds.), Consejo Nacional para las Culturas y las Artes, Mexico 2000.

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Aztec Sacrifice

Xiuhtecuhtli

Statue of Xiuhtecuhtli in the British Museum.[3]

In Aztec mythology, Xiuhtecuhtli[ʃiʍˈtekʷt͡ɬi] ("Turquoise Lord" or "Lord of Fire"),[4] was the god of fire, day and heat.[5] He was the lord of volcanoes,[6] the personification of life after death, warmth in cold (fire), light in darkness and food during famine. He was also named Cuezaltzin[kʷeˈsaɬt͡sin] ("flame") and Ixcozauhqui[iʃkoˈsaʍki],[7] and is sometimes considered to be the same as Huehueteotl ("Old God"),[8] although Xiuhtecuhtli is usually shown as a young deity.[9] His wife was Chalchiuhtlicue. Xiuhtecuhtli is sometimes considered to be a manifestation of Ometecuhtli, the Lord of Duality, and according to the Florentine Codex Xiuhtecuhtli was considered to be the father of the Gods,[10] who dwelled in the turquoise enclosure in the center of earth.[11] Xiuhtecuhtli-Huehueteotl was one of the oldest and most revered of the indigenous pantheon.[12] The cult of the God of Fire, of the Year, and of Turquoise perhaps began as far back as the middle Preclassic period.[13] Turquoise was the symbolic equivalent of fire for Aztec priests.[14] A small fire was permanently kept alive at the sacred center of every Aztec home in honor of Xiuhtecuhtli.[14]

The Nahuatl word xihuitl means "year" as well as "turquoise" and "fire",[11] and Xiuhtecuhtli was also the god of the year and of time.[15][16] The Lord of the Year concept came from the Aztec belief that Xiuhtecuhtli was the North Star.[17] In the 260-day ritual calendar, the deity was the patron of the day Atl ("Water") and with the trecena 1 Coatl ("1 Snake").[15] Xiuhtecuhtli was also one of the nine Lords of the Night and ruled the first hour of the night, named Cipactli ("Alligator").[18] Scholars have long emphasized that this fire deity also has aquatic qualities.[13] Xiuhtecuhtli dwelt inside an enclosure of turquoise stones, fortifying himself with turquoise bird water.[19] He is the god of fire in relation to the cardinal directions, just as the brazier for lighting fire is the center of the house or temple.[20] Xiuhtecuhtli was the patron god of the Aztec emperors, who were regarded as his living embodiment at their enthronement.[21] The deity was also one of the patron gods of the pochteca merchant class.[22]

Stone sculptures of Xiuhtecuhtli were ritually buried as offerings, and various statuettes have been recovered during excavations at the Great Temple of Tenochtitlan with which he was closely associated.[23] Statuettes of the deity from the temple depict a seated male with his arms crossed.[24] A sacred fire was always kept burning in the temples of Xiuhtecuhtli.[25] In gratitude for the gift of fire, the first mouthful of food from each meal was flung into the hearth.[21]

Attributes[edit]

Xiuhtecuhtli's face is painted with black and red pigment.[16] Xiuhtecuhtli was usually depicted adorned with turquoise mosaic, wearing the turquoise xiuhuitzolli crown of rulership on his head and a turquoise butterfly pectoral on his chest,[26] and he often wears a descending turquoise xiuhtototl bird (Cotinga amabilis) on his forehead and the Xiuhcoatl fire serpent on his back.[27] He owns fire serpent earplugs.[12] On his head he has a paper crown painted with different colors and motifs. On top of the crown there are sprays of green feathers, like flames from a fire.[12] He has feather tufts to each side, like pendants, toward his ears. On his back he has plumage resembling a dragon's head, made of yellow feathers with marine conch shells.[12] He has copper bells tied to the insteps of his feet. In his left hand he holds a shield with five greenstones, called chalchihuites, placed in the form of a cross on a thin gold plate that covered almost all the shield.[12] In his right hand he has a kind of scepter that was a round gold plate with a hole in the middle, and topped by two globes, one larger than the other, the smaller one had a point.[12] Xiuhtecuhtli is closely associated with youthful warriors and with rulership, and was considered a solar god.[28] His principal symbols are the tecpatl (flint) and the mamalhuatzin, the two sticks that were rubbed together to light ceremonial fires.[29] A staff with a deer's head was also an attribute of Xiuhtecuhtli, although not exclusively so as it could also be associated with Xochiquetzal and other deities.[30]

Many of the attributes of Xiuhtecuhtli are found associated with Early PostclassicToltec warriors but clear representations of the god are not common until the Late Postclassic.[27] The nahual, or spirit form, of Xiuhtecuhtli is Xiuhcoatl, the Fire Serpent.[31]

Xiuhtecuhtli was embodied in the teotecuilli, the sacrificial brazier into which sacrificial victims were cast during the New Fire ceremony.[31] This took place at the end of each cycle of the Aztec calendar round (every 52 years),[32] when the gods were thought to be able to end their covenant with humanity. Feasts were held in honor of Xiuhtecuhtli to keep his favors, and human sacrifices were burned after removing their heart.

Annual festival[edit]

The annual festival of Xiuhtecuhtli was celebrated in Izcalli, the 18th veintena of the year.[33] The Nahuatl word izcalli means "stone house" and refers to the building where maize used to be dried and roasted between mid-January and mid-February. The whole month was therefore devoted to fire.[14] The Izcalli rituals grew in importance every four years.[34] A framework image of the deity was constructed from wood and was richly finished with clothing, feathers and an elaborate mask.[33] Quails were sacrificed to the idol and their blood spilt before it and copal was burnt in his honour.[35] On the day of the festival, the priests of Xiuhtecuhtli spent the day dancing and singing before their god.[36] People caught animals, including mammals, birds, snakes, lizards and fish, for ten days before the festival in order to throw them into the hearth on the night of the festival.[37] On the tenth day of Izcalli, during a festival called huauhquiltamalcualiztli ("eating of the amaranth leaf tamales"), the New Fire was lighted, signifying the change of the annual cycle and the rebirth of the fire deity.[38] During the night the image of the god was lit with using the mamalhuatzin.[39] Food was consumed ritually, including shrimp tamales, after first offering it to the god.[37]

Every four years a more solemn version of the festival was held at the temple of Xiuhtecuhtli in Tenochtitlan, attended by the emperor and his nobles.[41] Slaves and captives were dressed as the deity and sacrificed in his honour.[42] Godparents were assigned to children on this day and the children had their ears ritually pierced. After this, the children, their parents and godparents all shared a meal together.[41]

New Fire Ceremony[edit]

Xiuhtecuhtli was celebrated often but especially at the end of every 52-year period. This was the time the 365-day solar and the 260-day sacred calendars ended on the same day and the Aztec celebrated the Binding of the Years with the New Fire Ceremony.[17] In order to perform the ritual, priests marched in solemn procession up the Hill of the Star on a peninsula near Culhuacán to wait for the star Yohualtecuhtli (either Aldebaran in the Taurus constellation or the Pleiades as a whole) to get past its zenith. Having ascertained this, they would tear out the heart of a sacrificial victim and kindle a flame in a small wooden hearth they placed inside the hole left in his chest. Priests used a drill method to generate this sacred flame. It was then carried on pine sticks to light the fires anew in every hearth, including the sacred braziers of perpetual fire, that numbered over 600 in the capital alone.[43]

In popular culture[edit]

A set of six postage stamps issued by the Royal Mail in 2003 to commemorate the 250th anniversary of the British Museum featured a mask of Xiuhtecuhtli alongside other Museum objects such as the Sutton Hoo helmet and Hoa Hakananai'a.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ abcCecilio A. Robelo (1905). Diccionario de Mitología Nahoa (in Spanish). Editorial Porrúa. p. 351. ISBN .
  2. ^Diaz, Gisele; Rodgers, Alan. The Codex Borgia: A Full-Color Restoration of the Ancient Mexican Manuscript. Dover. ISBN .
  3. ^Website of the British Museum.Archived May 23, 2011, at the Wayback Machine
  4. ^Fernández 1992, 1996, p.104. Matos Moctezuma & Solis Olguín 2002, p.476. Miller & Taube 1993, 2003, p.189.
  5. ^Matos Moctezuma & Solis Olguín 2002, p.433.
  6. ^Coe & Koontz 2002, p.55.
  7. ^Sahagún 1577, 1989, p.47. (Book I, Chapter XIII).
  8. ^Fernández 1992, 1996, p.104.
  9. ^ abMatos Moctezuma & Solis Olguín 2002, p.476.
  10. ^Fernández 1992, 1996, p.104. León-Portilla 2002, pp.25, 26.
  11. ^ abMatos Moctezuma 1988, p.94.
  12. ^ abcdefLuján 2005, p.140
  13. ^ abLuján 2005, p.141
  14. ^ abcRoy 2005, p.211
  15. ^ abMiller & Taube 1993, 2003, p.190. Smith 1996, 2003, pp.246-7. Díaz & Rodgers 1993, p.xix.
  16. ^ abBezanilla 2000, p.25
  17. ^ abBingham & Roberts 2010, p.143
  18. ^Díaz & Rodgers 1993, p.xix. Smith 1996, 2003, p.248
  19. ^Luján 2005, p.145.
  20. ^Luján 2005, p.147.
  21. ^ abMatos Moctezuma & Solis Olguín 2002, p.447.
  22. ^Coe & Koontz 2002, p.197.
  23. ^Matos Moctezuma & Solis Olguín 2002, pp.172, 476.
  24. ^Matos Moctezuma & Solis Olguín 2002, p.172.
  25. ^Matos Moctezuma & Solis Olguín 2002, p.414.
  26. ^Miller & Taube 1993, 2003, p.189. Barrera Rodríguez & López Arenas 2008, p.19.
  27. ^ abMiller & Taube 1993, 2003, p.189.
  28. ^Miller & Taube 1993, 2003, p.189. Matos Moctezuma & Solis Olguín 2002, pp.419-20.
  29. ^Fernández 1992, 1996, pp.104-6.
  30. ^Matos Moctezuma & Solis Olguín 2002, p.468.
  31. ^ abFernández 1992, 1996, p.107.
  32. ^Smith 1996, 2003, p.249.
  33. ^ abLópez Austin 1998, p.10. Sahagún 1577, 1989, p.47 (Book I, Chapter XIII).
  34. ^Luján 2005, p.143.
  35. ^Sahagún 1577, 1989, p.47 (Book I, Chapter XIII).
  36. ^Sahagún 1577, 1989, p.48 (Book I, Chapter XIII).
  37. ^ abLópez Austin 1998, p.10. Sahagún 1577, 1989, p.48 (Book I, Chapter XIII).
  38. ^Luján 2005, p.142.
  39. ^López Austin 1998, p.10.
  40. ^Díaz & Rodgers 1993, pp.xix, 64.
  41. ^ abSahagún 1577, 1989, pp.48-9 (Book I, Chapter XIII).
  42. ^López Austin 1998, p.10. Sahagún 1577, 1989, p.98 (Book II, Chapter XVIII).
  43. ^Roy 2005, p.316.

References[edit]

  • Barrera Rodríguez, Raúl; Gabino López Arenas (September–October 2008). "Hallazgos en el recinto ceremonial de Tenochtitlan"(PDF). Arqueología Mexicana (in Spanish). Mexico: Editorial Raíces. XVI (93): 18–25. ISSN 0188-8218. OCLC 29789840. Archived from the original(PDF) on 2010-02-06.
  • Bingham, Ann (2010). South and Meso-American Mythology A to Z. revised by Jeremy Roberts. Infobase Publishing. ISBN .
  • Coe, Michael D.; Rex Koontz (2002). Mexico: from the Olmecs to the Aztecs (5th, revised and enlarged ed.). London and New York: Thames & Hudson. ISBN . OCLC 50131575.
  • Díaz, Gisele; Alan Rodgers (1993). The Codex Borgia: A Full-Color Restoration of the Ancient Mexican Manuscript. New York: Dover Publications. ISBN . OCLC 27641334.
  • Fernández, Adela (1996) [1992]. Dioses Prehispánicos de México (in Spanish). Mexico City: Panorama Editorial. ISBN . OCLC 59601185.
  • León-Portilla, Miguel (July–August 2002). "Mitos de los Orígenes en Mesoamérica"(PDF). Arqueología Mexicana (in Spanish). Mexico: Editorial Raíces. X (56): 20–27. ISSN 0188-8218. OCLC 29789840. Archived from the original(PDF) on February 25, 2009.
  • López Austin, Alfredo (November–December 1998). "Los ritos: Un juego de definiciones". Arqueología Mexicana (in Spanish). Mexico: Editorial Raíces. VI (34): 4–17. ISSN 0188-8218. OCLC 29789840.
  • Matos Moctezuma, Eduardo (1988). The Great Temple of the Aztecs: Treasures of Tenochtitlan. New Aspects of Antiquity series. Doris Heyden (trans.). London: Thames & Hudson. ISBN . OCLC 17968786.
  • Matos Moctezuma, Eduardo; Felipe Solis Olguín (2002). Aztecs. London: Royal Academy of Arts. ISBN . OCLC 56096386.
  • Miller, Mary; Karl Taube (2003) [1993]. An Illustrated Dictionary of the Gods and Symbols of Ancient Mexico and the Maya. London: Thames & Hudson. ISBN . OCLC 28801551.
  • Sahagún, Bernardino de (1989) [1577]. Historia General de las Cosas de Nueva España, Tomo 1 (in Spanish). Mexico City: Consejo Nacional para la Cultura y las Artes. ISBN . OCLC 24728390.
  • Smith, Michael E. (2003) [1996]. The Aztecs (second ed.). Malden MA; Oxford and Carlton, Australia: Blackwell Publishing. ISBN . OCLC 59452395.
  • Bezanilla, Clara (2000). A Pocket Dictionary of Aztec and Mayan Gods and Goddesses. Getty Publications. ISBN .
  • Roy, Christian (2005). Traditional Festivals: A Multicultural Encyclopedia, Volume 1. ABC-CLIO, Incorporated. ISBN .
  • López Luján, Leonardo (2005). The Offerings of the Templo Mayor of Tenochtitlan. University of New Mexico Press. ISBN .
  • "250th Anniversary of the British Museum". CollectGBStamp. Retrieved 23 December 2016.open access
Sours: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Xiuhtecuhtli

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