Chandragupta maurya 20th december 2018

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जन्म: 30 जनवरी 1890, वाराणसी (उ.प्र.)। स्कूली शिक्षा मात्र आठवीं कक्षा तक। तत्पश्चात् घर पर ही संस्कृत, अंग्रेजी, पालि और प्राकृत भाषाओं का अध्ययन। इसके बाद भारतीय इतिहास, संस्कृति, दर्शन, साहित्य और पुराण-कथाओं का एकनिष्ठ स्वाध्याय। पिता देवीप्रसाद तम्बाकू और सुँघनी का व्यवसाय करते थे और वाराणसी में इनका परिवार 'सुँघनी साहू’ के नाम से प्रसिद्ध था। पिता के साथ बचपन में ही अनेक ऐतिहासिक और धार्मिक स्थलों की यात्राएँ कीं। छायावादी कविता के चार प्रमुख उन्नायकों में से एक। एक महान लेखक के रूप में प्रख्यात। विविध रचनाओं के माध्यम से मानवीय करुणा और भारतीय मनीषा के अनेकानेक गौरवपूर्ण पक्षों का उद्घाटन। 48 वर्षों के छोटे-से जीवन में कविता, कहानी, नाटक, उपन्यास और आलोचनात्मक निबन्ध आदि विभिन्न विधाओं में रचनाएँ। प्रमुख रचनाएँ: झरना, आँसू, लहर, कामायनी (काव्य); स्कन्दगुप्त, अजातशत्रु, चन्द्रगुप्त, ध्रुवस्वामिनी, जनमेजय का नागयज्ञ, राज्यश्री (नाटक); छाया, प्रतिध्वनि, आकाशदीप, आँधी, इन्द्रजाल (कहानी-संग्रह); कंकाल, तितली, इरावती (उपन्यास)। 14 जनवरी, 1937 को वाराणसी में निधन।

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Chandragupta Maurya

2018 - HINDI - SERIES

History

This is a historical saga of the first king of united India, Chandragupta Maurya. And How Chankya helps him throughout his journey. Chandragupta Maurya is a 2018 Indian Hindi-language History show featuring Faizal Khan, Kartikey Malviya, Tarun Khanna, Saurabh Raj Jain, Nimai Bali, Vikas Verma and Sumbul Touqueer. One Life Studios was the production house involved in the project along with executive producer(s) Gayatri Gill Tewary, Rahul Kumar Tewary and Siddharth Kumar Tewary. The series is directed by J.p. Sharma and Sumit Thakur. Series originally aired on Sony Entertainment Television in Hindi. Swastik Productions acquired the distribution rights for the television series. Creator of the series is Siddharth Kumar Tewary. Chandragupta Maurya has only one season and a cumulative total of 208 episodes which have a running time of 20-40 minutes each. Chandragupta Maurya was released on 14th November 2018 and takes a screen time of 20-40 minutes for each episode. The screenplay for the series was written by Medha Jadhav. Editing was done by Tarun Sunil Babbar. The music was composed by Sangeet Haldipur along with Siddharth Haldipur, Suryaraj Kamal, Lenin Nandi and Raju Singh.
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E 1
S1 | E1 | Ep 1 - The Beginning
E 2
15 November 2018 - Mad King Dhana Nanda
E 3
16 November 2018 - A New King In The Making
E 4
19 November 2018 - For Freedom
E 5
20 November 2018 - Fight To Survive
E 6
21 November 2018 - A New Enemy
E 7
22 November 2018 - Chanakyas Search
E 8
23 November 2018 - Dhana Nandas Murderous Approach
E 9
26 November 2018 - Face - To - Face With The Enemy
E 10
27 November 2018 - Rise Of The Young King
E 11
28 November 2018 - Thirsty For Blood
E 12
29 November 2018 - The Future King
E 13
30 November 2018 - King for a Day
E 14
3 December 2018 - Ashes Of The Dead
E 15
4 December 2018 - The Battle Begins
E 16
5 December 2018 - Chandragupta The Leader
E 17
6 December 2018 - Keeping a Secret
E 18
7 December 2018 - The Heir to the Throne
E 19
10 December 2018 - Reign of Terror
E 20
11 December 2018 - The Chosen One
E 21
12 December 2018 - Sweet Revenge
E 22
13 December 2018 - The Bodyguard
E 23
14 December 2018 - Chanakyas Plan
E 24
17 December 2018 - Beginning Of A New Era
E 25
18 December 2018 - Dhana Nandas Ploy

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Chandragupta Maurya

"Sandracottus" redirects here. For the genus of beetle, see Sandracottus (beetle).

For other uses, see Chandragupta (disambiguation).

Founder of the Maurya Empire in ancient India

Piadamsana Chakravartin Samrat

Chandragupta Maurya (reign: 323–298 BCE) was the founder of the Maurya Empire in ancient India. Chandragupta built one of the largest empires on the Indian subcontinent. Chandragupta's life and accomplishments are described in ancient Greek, Hindu, Buddhist and Jain texts, but they vary significantly. In Ancient Greek and Latin accounts, Chandragupta is referred as Sandrokottos and Androcottus respectively.

Chandragupta Maurya was an important figure in the history of India, laying the foundations of the first government to unite most of South Asia. Chandragupta, under the tutelage of Chanakya, created a new empire based on the principles of statecraft, built a large army, and continued expanding the boundaries of his empire until ultimately renouncing it for an ascetic life in his final years.

Prior to his consolidation of power, Alexander the Great had invaded the North-West Indian subcontinent before abandoning his campaign in 324 BCE due to a mutiny caused by the prospect of facing another large empire, presumably the Nanda Empire. Chandragupta defeated and conquered both the Nanda Empire, and the Greek satraps that were appointed or formed from Alexander's Empire in South Asia. Chandragupta first gained regional prominence in the Greater Punjab region in the Indus. He then set out to conquer the Nanda Empire centered in Pataliputra, Magadha. Afterwards, Chandragupta expanded and secured his western border, where he was confronted by Seleucus I Nicator in the Seleucid-Mauryan War. After two years of war, Chandragupta was considered to have gained the upper hand in the conflict and annexed satrapies up to the Hindu Kush. Instead of prolonging the war, both parties settled on a marriage treaty between Chandragupta and Seleucus I Nicator.

Chandragupta's empire extended throughout most of the Indian subcontinent, spanning from modern day Bengal to Afghanistan across North India as well as making inroads into Central and South India. According to the Jain accounts dated to 800 years after his death, Chandragupta abdicated his throne and became a Jain monk, traveled away from his empire to South India and committed sallekhana or fasting to death. Contemporary Greek evidence however avers that Chandragupta did not give up performing the rites of sacrificing animals associated with Vedic Brahminism, an ancient form of Hinduism; he delighted in hunting and otherwise leading a life remote from the Jain practice of Ahimsa or nonviolence towards living beings.[6][7] Chandragupta's reign, and the Maurya Empire, set an era of economic prosperity, reforms, infrastructure expansions, and tolerance. Many religions thrived within his realms and his descendants' empire. Buddhism, Jainism and Ajivika gained prominence alongside Vedic and Brahmanistic traditions, and minority religions such as Zoroastrianism and the Greek pantheon were respected. A memorial for Chandragupta Maurya exists on the Chandragiri hill along with a 7th-century hagiographic inscription.

Historical sources[edit]

Chandragupta's life and accomplishments are described in ancient and historical Greek, Hindu, Buddhist, and Jain texts, though they significantly vary in detail. The historical sources which describe the life of Chandragupta Maurya vary considerably in detail. Chandragupta was born about 340 BC and died about 295 BC. His main biographical sources in chronological order are:

  • Greek and Roman sources, which are the oldest surviving records that mention Chandragupta or circumstances related to him; these include works written by Nearchus, Onesicritus, Aristobulus of Cassandreia, Strabo, Megasthenes, Diodorus, Arrian, Pliny the Elder, Plutarch and Justin.
  • Hindu texts such as the Puranas and Arthashastra; later composed Hindu sources include legends in Vishakhadatta's Mudrarakshasa, Somadeva's Kathasaritsagara and Kshemendra's Brihatkathamanjari.
  • Buddhist sources are those dated in 4th-century or after, including the Sri Lankan Pali texts Dipavamsa (Rajavamsa section), Mahavamsa, Mahavamsa tika and Mahabodhivamsa.
  • 7th to 10th century Jain inscriptions at Shravanabelgola; these are disputed by scholars as well as the Svetambara Jain tradition. The second Digambara text interpreted to be mentioning the Maurya emperor is dated to about the 10th-century such as in the Brhatkathakosa of Harisena (Jain monk), while the complete Jain legend about Chandragupta is found in the 12th-century Parisishtaparvan by Hemachandra.

The Greek and Roman texts do not mention Chandragupta directly, except for a 2nd-century text written by the Roman historian Justin. They predominantly mention the last Nanda Empire, which usurped the king before him. Justin states Chandragupta was of humble origin and includes stories of miraculous legends associated with him, such as a wild elephant appearing and submitting itself as a ride to him before a war. Justin's text notes Chandragupta and Chanakya defeated and removed Nanda from his rule. Megasthenes' account, as it has survived in Greek texts that quote him, states that Alexander the Great and Chandragupta met, which if true would mean his rule started earlier than 321 BCE. He is described as a great king, but not as great in power and influence as Porus in northwestern India or Agrammes (Dhana Nanda) in eastern India.

The pre-4th century Hindu Puranic texts mostly mirror the Greek sources. These texts do not discuss the details of Chandragupta's ancestry, but rather cover the ancestry of the last Nanda king. The Nanda king is described to be cruel, against dharma and shastras, and born out of an illicit relationship followed by a coup. The Chanakya's Arthasastra refers to the Nanda rule as against the spiritual, cultural, and military interests of the country, a period where intrigue and vice multiplied. Chanakya states that Chandragupta returned dharma, nurtured diversity of views, and ruled virtuously that kindled love among the subjects for his rule.

Hindu sources are inconsistent. One medieval commentator states Chandragupta to be the son of one of the Nanda's wives with the name Mura. Other sources describe Mura as a concubine of the king.[15] Another Sanskrit dramatic text Mudrarakshasa uses the terms Vrishala and Kula-Hina (meaning - "not descending from a recognized clan or family.") to describe Chandragupta. The word Vrishala has two meanings: one is the son of a Shudra; the other means the best of kings. A later commentator used the former interpretation to posit that Chandragupta had a Shudra background. However, historian Radha Kumud Mukherjee opposed this theory, and stated that the word should be interpreted as "the best of kings". The same drama also refers to Chandragupta as someone of humble origin, like Justin. According to the 11th-century texts of the Kashmiri Hindu tradition – Kathasaritsagara and Brihat-Katha-Manjari – the Nanda lineage was very short. Chandragupta was a son of Purva-Nanda, the older Nanda based in Ayodhya. [19] The common theme in the Hindu sources is that Chandragupta came from a humble background and with Chanakya, he emerged as a dharmic king loved by his subjects.

The Buddhist texts such as Mahavamsa describe Chandragupta to be of Kshatriya origin. These sources, written about seven centuries after his dynasty ended, state that both Chandragupta and his grandson Ashoka – a patron of Buddhism – were from a branch of the Shakya noble family, from which Gautama Buddha descended from. These Buddhist sources attempt to link the dynasty of their patron Ashoka directly to the Buddha. The sources claim that the family branched off to escape persecution from a king of the Kosala Kingdom and Chandragupta's ancestors moved into a secluded Himalayan kingdom known for its peacocks. The Buddhist sources explain the epithet Moriya comes from these peacocks, or Mora in Pali (Sanskrit: Mayura). [3] The Buddhist texts are inconsistent; some offer other legends to explain his epithet. For example, they mention a city named "Moriya-nagara" where all buildings were made of bricks colored like the peacock's neck. The Maha-bodhi-vasa states he hailed from Moriya-nagara, while the Digha-Nikaya states he came from the Moriya clan of Pipphalivana. The Buddhist sources also mention that "Brahmin Chanakya" was his counselor and with whose support Chandragupta became the king at Patliputra.

The 12th-century Digambara text Parishishtaparvan by Hemachandra is the main and earliest Jain source of the complete legend of Chandragupta. It was written nearly 1,400 years after Chandragupta's death. Canto 8, verses 170 to 469, describes the legend of Chandragupta and Chanakya's influence on him. [25] Other Digambara Jain sources state he moved to Karnataka after renouncing his kingdom and performed Sallekhana – the Jain religious ritual of peacefully welcoming death by fasting. The earliest mention of Chandragupta's ritual death is found in Harisena's Brhatkathakosa, a Sanskrit text of stories about Digambara Jains. The Brhatkathakosa describes the legend of Bhadrabahu and mentions Chandragupta in its 131st story. However, the story makes no mention of the Maurya empire, and mentions that his disciple Chandragupta lived in and migrated from Ujjain – a kingdom (northwest Madhya Pradesh) about a thousand kilometers west of the Magadha and Patliputra (central Bihar). This has led to the proposal that Harisena's Chandragupta may be a later era, different person.

Date[edit]

None of the ancient texts mention when Chandragupta was born. Plutarch claims that he was a young man when he met Alexander during the latter's invasion of India (c. 326-325 BCE). Assuming the Plutarch account is true, Raychaudhuri proposed in 1923 that Chandragupta may have been born after 350 BCE. According to other Greco-Roman texts, Chandragupta attacked the Greek-Indian governors after Alexander's death (c. 323 BCE) with Seleucus I Nicator entering into a treaty with Chandragupta years later. Seleucus Nicator, under this treaty, gave up Arachosia (Kandahar), Gedrosia (Makran), and Paropanisadai (Paropamisadae, Kabul) to Chandragupta, in exchange for 500 war elephants.

The texts do not include the start or end year of Chandragupta's reign. According to some Hindu and Buddhist texts, Chandragupta ruled for 24 years. The Buddhist sources state Chandragupta Maurya ruled 162 years after the death of the Buddha. However, the Buddha's birth and death vary by source and all these lead to a chronology that is significantly different than the Greek-Roman records. Similarly, Jain sources composed give different gaps between Mahavira's death and his accession. As with the Buddha's death, the date of Mahavira's death itself is also a matter of debate, and the inconsistencies and lack of unanimity among the Jain authors cast doubt on Jain sources. This Digambara Jain chronology, also, is not reconcilable with the chronology implied in other Indian and non-Indian sources.

Historians such as Irfan Habib and Vivekanand Jha assign Chandragupta's reign to c. 322-298 BCE. Upinder Singh dates his rule from 324 or 321 BCE to 297 BCE. Kristi Wiley states he reigned between 320 and 293 BCE.

Early life[edit]

The early life of Chandragupta Maurya is unclear and varies by source. According to the Sinhalese Buddhist tradition, Chandragupta's mother was pregnant when his father - who was the chief of the Moriya clan - was killed in a battle. His mother escaped to Patliputra with the help of her brothers. For Chandragupta's safety, his maternal uncles helped a cowherd adopt him. When Chandragupta grew up, the cowherd sold him to a hunter who employed him to tend cattle.

According to the Digambara legend by Hemachandra, Chanakya was a Jain layperson and a Brahmin. When Chanakya was born, Jain monks prophesied that Chanakya will one day grow up to help make someone an emperor and will be the power behind the throne.[25] Chanakya believed in the prophecy and fulfilled it by agreeing to help the daughter of a peacock-breeding community chief deliver a baby boy. In exchange, he asked the mother to give up the boy and let him adopt him at a later date.[25] The Jain Brahmin then went about making money through magic, and returned later to claim young Chandragupta,[25] whom he taught and trained. Together, they recruited soldiers and attacked the Nanda kingdom. Eventually, they won and proclaimed Patliputra as their capital.[25]

Career[edit]

Influence of Chanakya (Kautilya)[edit]

Chanakya
Chandragupta's guruwas Chanakya, with whom he studied as a child and with whose counsel he built the Empire. This image is a 1915 artistic portrait of Chanakya.

The Buddhist and Hindu sources present different versions of how Chandragupta met Chanakya. Broadly, they mention young Chandragupta creating a mock game of a royal court that he and his cowherd friends played near Vinjha forest. Chanakya saw him give orders to the others, bought him from the hunter, and adopted Chandragupta. Chanakya taught and admitted him in Taxila to study the Vedas, military arts, law, and other sastras.[40]

After Taxila, Chandragupta and Chanakya moved to Pataliputra, the capital and a historic learning center in the eastern Magadha kingdom of India. They met Nanda there according to Hindu sources, and Dhana Nanda according to Pali-language Buddhist sources. Chandragupta became a commander of the Nanda army, but according to Justin, Chandragupta offended the Nanda king ("Nandrum" or "Nandrus") who ordered his execution. An alternate version states that it was the Nanda king who was publicly insulted by Chanakya. Chandragupta and Chanakya escaped and became rebels who planned to remove the Nanda king from power.[note 1] The Mudrarakshasa also states that Chanakya swore to destroy the Nanda dynasty after he felt insulted by the king.

The Roman text by Justin mentions a couple of miraculous incidents that involved Sandracottus (Chandragupta) and presents these legends as omens and portents of his fate. In the first incident, when Chandragupta was asleep after having escaped from Nandrum, a big lion came up to him, licked him, and then left. In the second incident, when Chandragupta was readying for war with Alexander's generals, a huge wild elephant approached him and offered itself to be his steed.

Building the empire[edit]

Main articles: Conquest of the Nanda Empire and Maurya Empire

According to the Buddhist text Mahavamsa Tika, Chandragupta and Chanakya raised an army by recruiting soldiers from many places after the former completed his education at Taxila. Chanakya made Chandragupta the leader of the army. The Digambara Jain text Parishishtaparvan states that this army was raised by Chanakya with coins he minted and an alliance formed with Parvataka.[47] According to Justin, Chandragupta organized an army. Early translators interpreted Justin's original expression as "body of robbers", but states Raychaudhuri, the original expression used by Justin may mean mercenary soldier, hunter, or robber.

The Buddhist Mahavamsa Tika and Jain Parishishtaparvan records Chandragupta's army unsuccessfully attacking the Nanda capital. [47] Chandragupta and Chanakya then began a campaign at the frontier of the Nanda empire, gradually conquering various territories on their way to the Nanda capital. He then refined his strategy by establishing garrisons in the conquered territories, and finally besieged the Nanda capital Pataliputra. There Dhana Nanda accepted defeat, and was killed by Buddhist accounts, or deposed and exiled by Hindu accounts.

Conquest of the Nanda empire[edit]

Greco-Roman writer Plutarch stated, in his Life of Alexander, that the Nanda king was so unpopular that had Alexander tried, he could have easily conquered India. After Alexander ended his campaign and left, Chandragupta's army conquered the Nanda capital Pataliputra around 322 BCE with Chanakya's counsel.

Historically reliable details of Chandragupta's campaign into Pataliputra are unavailable and legends written centuries later are inconsistent. Buddhist texts such as Milindapanha claim Magadha was ruled by the Nanda dynasty, which, with Chanakya's counsel, Chandragupta conquered to restore dhamma. The army of Chandragupta and Chanakya first conquered the Nanda outer territories before invading Pataliputra. In contrast to the easy victory in Buddhist sources, the Hindu and Jain texts state that the campaign was bitterly fought because the Nanda dynasty had a powerful and well-trained army.

The conquest was fictionalised in Mudrarakshasa, in which Chandragupta is said to have first acquired Punjab and allied with a local king named Parvatka under the Chanakya's advice before advancing on the Nanda Empire. Chandragupta laid siege to Kusumapura (now Patna), the capital of Magadha, by deploying guerrilla warfare methods with the help of mercenaries from conquered areas. Historian P. K. Bhattacharyya states that the empire was built by a gradual conquest of provinces after the initial consolidation of Magadha.

According to the Digambara Jain version by Hemachandra, the success of Chandragupta and his strategist Chanakya was stopped by a Nanda town that refused to surrender.[61] Chanakya disguised himself as a mendicant and found seven mother goddesses (saptamatrika) inside. He concluded these goddesses were protecting the town people.[61] The townspeople sought the disguised mendicant's advice on how to end the blockade of the army surrounding their town. Hemacandra wrote Chanakya swindled them into removing the mother goddesses. The townspeople removed the protective goddesses and an easy victory over the town followed. Thereafter, the alliance of Chandragupta and Parvataka overran the Nanda kingdom and attacked Patliputra with an "immeasurable army".[61] With a depleted treasury, exhausted merit, and insufficient intelligence, the Nanda king lost.[61]

These legends state that the Nanda king was defeated, but allowed to leave Pataliputra alive with a chariot full of items his family needed. The Jain sources attest that his daughter fell in love at first sight with Chandragupta and married him.[61] With the defeat of Nanda, Chandragupta Maurya founded the Maurya Empire in ancient India.[3]

Conquest of north-west regions[edit]

The Indian campaign of Alexander the Great ended before Chandragupta came into power. Alexander had left India in 325 BCE and assigned the northwestern Indian subcontinent territories to Greek governors. The nature of early relationship between these governors and Chandragupta is unknown. Justin mentions Chandragupta as a rival of the Alexander's successors in north-western India. He states that after Alexander's death, Chandragupta freed Indian territories from the Greeks and executed some of the governors. According to Boesche, this war with the northwestern territories was in part fought by mercenaries hired by Chandragupta and Chanakya, and these wars may have been the cause of the demise of two of Alexander's governors, Nicanor and Philip.Megasthenes served as a Greek ambassador in his court for four years.

War and marriage alliance with Seleucus[edit]

According to Appian, Seleucus I Nicator, one of Alexander's Macedonian generals who in 312 BCE established the Seleucid Kingdom with its capital at Babylon, brought Persia and Bactria under his own authority, putting his eastern front facing the empire of Chandragupta. Seleucus and Chandragupta waged war until they came to an understanding with each other. Seleucus married off his daughter to Chandragupta to forge an alliance.

R. C. Majumdar and D. D. Kosambi note that Seleucus appeared to have fared poorly after ceding large territories west of the Indus to Chandragupta. The Maurya Empire added Arachosia (Kandahar), Gedrosia (Balochistan), and Paropamisadae (Gandhara).[71][a] According to Strabo, Seleucus Nicator gave these regions to Chandragupta along with a marriage treaty, and in return received five hundred elephants.[72] The details of the engagement treaty are not known. According to one version, the marriage treaty involved an Indian princess, while a different version states a Seleucid princess married into the Mauryan family.[74]

Chandragupta sent 500 war elephants to Seleucus, which played a key role in Seleucus' victory at the Battle of Ipsus.[75][77] In addition to this treaty, Seleucus dispatched Megasthenes as an ambassador to Chandragupta's court, and later Antiochos sent Deimakos to his son Bindusara at the Maurya court at Patna.

Southern conquest[edit]

After annexing Seleucus' provinces west of the Indus river, Chandragupta had a vast empire extending across the northern Indian sub-continent from the Bay of Bengal to the Arabian Sea. Chandragupta began expanding his empire southwards beyond the Vindhya Range and into the Deccan Plateau. By the time his conquests were complete, Chandragupta's empire extended over most of the subcontinent.

Two poetic anthologies from the Tamil Sangam literature corpus – Akananuru and Purananuru – allude to the Nanda rule and Maurya empire. For example, poems 69, 281 and 375 mention the army and chariots of the Mauryas, while poems 251 and 265 may be alluding to the Nandas. However, the poems dated between 1st-century BCE to 5th-century CE do not mention Chandragupta Maurya by name, and some of them could be referring to a different Moriya dynasty in the Deccan region in the 5th century CE. According to Upinder Singh, these poems may be mentioning Mokur and Koshar kingdoms of Vadugars (northerners) in Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh, with one interpretation being that the Maurya empire had an alliance with these at some point of time.

Names and titles[edit]

Greek writer Phylarchus (c. 3rd century BCE), who is quoted by Athenaeus, calls Chandragupta "Sandrokoptos". The later Greco-Roman writers Strabo, Arrian, and Justin (c. 2nd century) call him "Sandrocottus". In Greek and Latin accounts, Chandragupta is known as Sandrakottos (Greek: Σανδράκοττος) and Androcottus (Greek: Ανδροκόττος).[85] However, some recent authors have disputed the identification of "Sandrokottus" of Greek accounts with Chandragupta Maurya.[86][87]

The king's epithets mentioned in the Sanskrit play Mudrarakshasa include "Chanda-siri" (Chandra-shri), "Piadamsana" (Priya-darshana), and Vrishala. Piadamsana is similar to Piyadasi, an epithet of his grandson Ashoka. The word "Vrishala" is used in Indian epics and law books to refer to non-orthodox people. According to one theory, it may be derived from the Greek royal title Basileus, but there is no concrete evidence of this: the Indian sources apply it to several non-royals, especially wandering teachers and ascetics.

Empire[edit]

There are no records of Chandragupta's military conquests and the reach of his empire. It is based on inferences from Greek and Roman historians and the religious Indian texts written centuries after his death. Based on these, the North-West reach of his empire included parts of present-day Afghanistan that Seleucus I Nicator ceded to him including Kabul, Kandahar, Taxila and Gandhara. These are the areas where his grandson Ashoka left the major Kandahar rock edict and other edicts in the Greek and Aramaic languages.[92]

In the west, Chandragupta's rule over present-day Gujarat is attested to by Ashoka's inscription in Junagadh. On the same rock, about 400 years later, Rudradaman inscribed a longer text sometime about the mid 2nd–century. Rudradaman's inscription states that the Sudarshana lake in the area was commissioned during the rule of Chandragupta through his governor Vaishya Pushyagupta and conduits were added during Ashoka's rule through Tushaspha. The Mauryan control of the region is further corroborated by the inscription on the rock, which suggests that Chandragupta controlled the Malwa region in Central India, located between Gujarat and Pataliputra.

There is uncertainty about the other conquests that Chandragupta may have achieved, especially in the Deccan region of southern India. At the time of his grandson Ashoka's ascension in c. 268 BCE, the empire extended up to present-day Karnataka in the south, so the southern conquests may be attributed to either Chandragupta or his son Bindusara. If the Jain tradition about Chandragupta ending his life as a renunciate in Karnakata is considered correct, it appears that Chandragupta initiated the southern conquest.

Maurya with his counsellor Chanakya together built one of the largest empires ever on the Indian subcontinent.[3] Chandragupta's empire extended from Bengal to central Afghanistan encompassing most of the Indian subcontinent except for parts that are now Tamil Nadu, Kerala and Odisha.

Rule[edit]

After unifying much of India, Chandragupta and Chanakya passed a series of major economic and political reforms. Chandragupta established a strong central administration from Pataliputra (now Patna). Chandragupta applied the statecraft and economic policies described in Chanakya's text Arthashastra.[100] There are varying accounts in the historic, legendary, and hagiographic literature of various Indian religions about Chandragupta's rule, but Allchin and Erdosy' are suspect; they state, "one cannot but be struck by the many close correspondences between the (Hindu) Arthashastra and the two other major sources the (Buddhist) Asokan inscriptions and (Greek) Megasthenes text".

The Maurya rule was a structured administration; Chandragupta had a council of ministers (amatya), with Chanakya was his chief minister.[103] The empire was organised into territories (janapada), centres of regional power were protected with forts (durga), and state operations were funded with treasury (kosa). Strabo, in his Geographica composed about 300 years after Chandragupta's death, describes aspects of his rule in his chapter XV.46–69. He had councillors for matters of justice and assessors to collect taxes on commercial activity and trade goods. He routinely performed Vedic sacrifices, Brahmanical rituals, and hosted major festivals marked by procession of elephants and horses. His officers inspected situations requiring law and order in the cities; the crime rate was low.

According to Megasthenes, Chandragupta's rule was marked by three parallel administrative structures. One managed the affairs of villages, ensuring irrigation, recording land ownership, monitoring tools supply, enforcing hunting, wood products and forest-related laws, and settling disputes. Another administrative structure managed city affairs, including all matters related to trade, merchant activity, visit of foreigners, harbors, roads, temples, markets, and industries. They also collected taxes and ensured standardized weights and measures. The third administrative body overlooked the military, its training, its weapons supply, and the needs of the soldiers.

Chanakya was concerned about Chandragupta's safety and developed elaborate techniques to prevent assassination attempts. Various sources report Chandragupta frequently changed bedrooms to confuse conspirators. He left his palace only for certain tasks: to go on military expeditions, to visit his court for dispensing justice, to offer sacrifices, for celebrations, and for hunting. During celebrations, he was well-guarded, and on hunts, he was surrounded by female guards who were presumed to be less likely to participate in a coup conspiracy. These strategies may have resulted from the historical context of the Nanda king who had come to power by assassinating the previous king.

During Chandragupta's reign and that of his dynasty, many religions thrived in India, with Buddhism, Jainism and Ajivika gaining prominence along with other folk traditions.

Infrastructure projects[edit]

Coins
Silver punch mark coin of the Maurya empire, with symbols of wheel and elephant (3rd century BCE)

The empire built a strong economy from a solid infrastructure such as irrigation, temples, mines, and roads. Ancient epigraphical evidence suggests Chandragupta, under counsel from Chanakya, started and completed many irrigation reservoirs and networks across the Indian subcontinent to ensure food supplies for the civilian population and the army, a practice continued by his dynastic successors. Regional prosperity in agriculture was one of the required duties of his state officials.

The strongest evidence of infrastructure development is found in the Junagadh rock inscription of Rudradaman in Gujarat, dated to about 150 CE. It states, among other things, that Rudradaman repaired and enlarged the reservoir and irrigation conduit infrastructure built by Chandragupta and enhanced by Asoka. Chandragupta's empire also built mines, manufacturing centres, and networks for trading goods. His rule developed land routes to transport goods across the Indian subcontinent. Chandragupta expanded "roads suitable for carts" as he preferred those over narrow tracks suitable for only pack animals.

According to Kaushik Roy, the Maurya dynasty rulers were "great road builders". The Greek ambassador Megasthenes credited this tradition to Chandragupta after the completion of a thousand-mile-long highway connecting Chandragupta's capital Pataliputra in Bihar to Taxila in the north-west where he studied. The other major strategic road infrastructure credited to this tradition spread from Pataliputra in various directions, connecting it with Nepal, Kapilavastu, Dehradun, Mirzapur, Odisha, Andhra, and Karnataka. Roy stated this network boosted trade and commerce, and helped move armies rapidly and efficiently.

Chandragupta and Chanakya seeded weapon manufacturing centres, and kept them as a state monopoly of the state. The state, however, encouraged competing private parties to operate mines and supply these centres. They considered economic prosperity essential to the pursuit of dharma (virtuous life) and adopted a policy of avoiding war with diplomacy yet continuously preparing the army for war to defend its interests and other ideas in the Arthashastra.

Arts and architecture[edit]

The evidence of arts and architecture during Chandragupta's time is mostly limited to texts such as those by Megasthenes and Kautilya. The edict inscriptions and carvings on monumental pillars are attributed to his grandson Ashoka. The texts imply the existence of cities, public works, and prosperous architecture but the historicity of these is in question.{{sfn|Harrison|2009|pp=234–235}}

Archeological discoveries in the modern age, such as those Didarganj Yakshi discovered in 1917 buried beneath the banks of the Ganges suggest exceptional artisanal accomplishment.[122] The site was dated to 3rd century BCE by many scholars[122] but later dates such as the Kushan era (1st-4th century CE) have also been proposed. The competing theories state that the art linked to Chandragupta Maurya's dynasty was learnt from the Greeks and West Asia in the years Alexander the Great waged war; or that these artifacts belong to an older indigenous Indian tradition. Frederick Asher of the University of Minnesota says "we cannot pretend to have definitive answers; and perhaps, as with most art, we must recognize that there is no single answer or explanation".

Succession, renunciation, and death (Sallekhana)[edit]

Inscription
1,300 years Old Shravanabelagola relief shows death of Chandragupta after taking the vow of Sallekhana. Some consider it about the legend of his arrival with Bhadrabahu.

The circumstances and year of Chandragupta's death are unclear and disputed. According to Digambara Jain accounts that, Bhadrabahu forecasted a 12-year famine because of all the killing and violence during the conquests by Chandragupta Maurya. He led a group of Jain monks to south India, where Chandragupta Maurya joined him as a monk after abdicated his kingdom to his son Bindusara. Together, states a Digambara legend, Chandragupta and Bhadrabahu moved to Shravanabelagola, in present-day south Karnataka. These Jain accounts appeared in texts such as Brihakathā kośa (931 CE) of Harishena, Bhadrabāhu charita (1450 CE) of Ratnanandi, Munivaṃsa bhyudaya (1680 CE) and Rajavali kathe. Chandragupta lived as an ascetic at Shravanabelagola for several years before fasting to death as per the Jain practice of sallekhana, according to the Digambara legend.

In accordance with the Digambara tradition, the hill on which Chandragupta is stated to have performed asceticism is now known as Chandragiri hill, and Digambaras believe that Chandragupta Maurya erected an ancient temple that now survives as the Chandragupta basadi. According to Roy, Chandragupta's abdication of throne may be dated to c. 298 BCE, and his death to c. 297 BCE. His grandson was emperor Ashoka who is famed for his historic pillars and his role in helping spread Buddhism outside of ancient India.

Regarding the inscriptions describing the relation of Bhadrabahu and Chandragupta Maurya, Radha Kumud Mookerji writes,

The oldest inscription of about 600 AD associated "the pair (yugma), Bhadrabahu along with Chandragupta Muni." Two inscriptions of about 900 AD on the Kaveri near Seringapatam describe the summit of a hill called Chandragiri as marked by the footprints of Bhadrabahu and Chandragupta munipati. A Shravanabelagola inscription of 1129 mentions Bhadrabahu "Shrutakevali", and Chandragupta who acquired such merit that he was worshipped by the forest deities. Another inscription of 1163 similarly couples and describes them. A third inscription of the year 1432 speaks of Yatindra Bhadrabahu, and his disciple Chandragupta, the fame of whose penance spread into other words.[132]

Along with texts, several Digambara Jain inscriptions dating from the 7th–15th century refer to Bhadrabahu and a Prabhacandra. Later Digambara tradition identified the Prabhacandra as Chandragupta, and some modern era scholars have accepted this Digambara tradition while others have not, Several of the late Digambara inscriptions and texts in Karnataka state the journey started from Ujjain and not Patliputra (as stated in some Digambara texts).

Jeffery D. Long – a scholar of Jain and Hindu studies – says in one Digambara version, it was Samprati Chandragupta who renounced, migrated and performed sallekhana in Shravanabelagola. Long states scholars attribute the disintegration of the Maurya empire to the times and actions of Samprati Chandragupta – the grandson of Ashoka and great-great-grandson of Chandragupta Maurya. The two Chandraguptas have been confused to be the same in some Digambara legends.

Scholar of Jain studies and Sanskrit Paul Dundas says the Svetambara tradition of Jainism disputes the ancient Digambara legends. According to a 5th-century text of the Svetambara Jains, the Digambara sect of Jainism was founded 609 years after Mahavira's death, or in 1st-century CE. Digambaras wrote their own versions and legends after the 5th-century, with their first expanded Digambara version of sectarian split within Jainism appearing in the 10th-century. The Svetambaras texts describe Bhadrabahu was based near Nepalese foothills of the Himalayas in 3rd-century BCE, who neither moved nor travelled with Chandragupta Maurya to the south; rather, he died near Patliputra, according to the Svetambara Jains.

The 12th-century Svetambara Jain legend by Hemachandra presents a different picture. The Hemachandra version includes stories about Jain monks who could become invisible to steal food from royal storage and the Jain Brahmin Chanakya using violence and cunning tactics to expand Chandragupta's kingdom and increase royal revenues.[25] It states in verses 8.415 to 8.435, that for 15 years as king, Chandragupta was a follower of non-Jain "ascetics with the wrong view of religion" (non-Jain) and "lusted for women". Chanakya, who was a Jain follower, persuaded Chandragupta to convert to Jainism by showing that Jain ascetics avoided women and focused on their religion.[25] The legend mentions Chanakya aiding the premature birth of Bindusara,[25] It states in verse 8.444 that "Chandragupta died in meditation (can possibly be sallekhana.) and went to heaven".[137] According to Hemachandra's legend, Chanakya also performed sallekhana. [137]

The Footprints of Chandragupta Maurya on ChandragiriHill, where Chandragupta (the unifier of India and founder of the MauryaDynasty) performed Sallekhana.

According to V. R. Ramachandra Dikshitar – an Indologist and historian, several of the Digambara legends mention Prabhacandra, who had been misidentified as Chandragupta Maurya particularly after the original publication on Shravanabelagola epigraphy by B. Lewis Rice. The earliest and most important inscriptions mention Prabhacandra, which Rice presumed may have been the "clerical name assumed by Chadragupta Maurya" after he renounced and moved with Bhadrabahu from Patliputra. Dikshitar stated there is no evidence to support this and Prabhacandra was an important Jain monk scholar who migrated centuries after Chandragupta Maurya's death. Other scholars have taken Rice's deduction of Chandragupta Maurya retiring and dying in Shravanabelagola as the working hypothesis, since no alternate historical information or evidence is available about Chandragupta's final years and death.

Legacy[edit]

A memorial to Chandragupta Maurya exists on Chandragiri hill in Shravanabelagola, Karnataka. The Indian Postal Service issued a commemorative postage stamp honouring Chandragupta Maurya in 2001.[139]

In popular culture[edit]

  • Mudrarakshasa is a political drama in Sanskrit by Vishakadatta composed 600 years after the conquest of Chandragupta – probably between 300 CE and 700 CE.
  • D. L. Roy wrote a Bengali drama named Chandragupta based on the life of Chandragupta. The story of the play is loosely borrowed from the Puranas and the Greek history.
  • Chanakya's role in the formation of the Maurya Empire is the essence of a historical/spiritual novel The Courtesan and the Sadhu by Dr. Mysore N. Prakash.[141]
  • Chandragupta is a 1920 Indian silent film about the Mauryan king.[142]
  • Chandragupta is a 1934 Indian film directed by Abdur Rashid Kardar.
  • Chandraguptha Chanakya is an Indian Tamil-language historical drama film directed by C. K. Sachi, starring Bhavani K. Sambamurthy as Chandragupta.
  • Samrat Chandragupta is a 1945 Indian historical film by Jayant Desai.[143]
  • Samrat Chandragupt is a 1958 Indian historical fiction film by Babubhai Mistry, a remake of the 1945 film. It stars Bharat Bhushan in the titular role of the emperor.[144]
  • The story of Chanakya and Chandragupta was made into a film in Telugu in 1977 titled Chanakya Chandragupta.[145]
  • The television series Chanakya is an account of the life and times of Chanakya, based on the play "Mudra Rakshasa" (The Signet Ring of "Rakshasa").[146]
  • In 2011, a television series called Chandragupta Maurya was telecast on Imagine TV.[147][148][149]
  • In 2016, the television series Chandra Nandini was a fictionalized romance saga.[150]
  • In 2018, a television series called Chandragupta Maurya portrays the life of Chandragupta Maurya.[151]
  • He is a leader of the Indian civilization in the Rise and Fall expansion of the 4X video game Civilization VI.[152]
  • Nobunaga the Fool, a Japanese stage play and anime, features a character named Chandragupta based on the emperor.
  • In the 2001 film, Aśoka (film), directed by Santosh Sivan, Bollywood producer Umesh Mehra played the role of Chandragupta Maurya.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^Some early printed editions of Justin's work wrongly mentioned "Alexandrum" instead of "Nandrum"; this error was corrected in philologist J. W. McCrindle's 1893 translation. In the 20th century, historians Hem Chandra Raychaudhuri and R. C. Majumdar believed "Alexandrum" to be correct reading, and theorized that Justin refers to a meeting between Chandragupta and Alexander the Great ("Alexandrum"). However, this is incorrect: research by historian Alfred von Gutschmid in the preceding century had clearly established that "Nandrum" is the correct reading supported by multiple manuscripts: only a single defective manuscript mentions "Alexandrum" in the margin.
  1. ^According to Grainger, Seleucus "must ... have held Aria" (Herat), and furthermore, his "son Antiochos was active there fifteen years later". (Grainger, John D. 1990, 2014. Seleukos Nikator: Constructing a Hellenistic Kingdom. Routledge. p. 109).

References[edit]

Citations[edit]

  1. ^ abcdChandragupta Maurya, Emperor of IndiaArchived 10 March 2018 at the Wayback Machine, Encyclopædia Britannica
  2. ^Majumdar, R. C.; Raychauduhuri, H. C.; Datta, Kalikinkar (1960), An Advanced History of India, London: Macmillan & Company Ltd; New York: St Martin's Press,
  3. ^The authors and their affiliations listed in the title page of the reference (which has the Wikipedia page An Advanced History of India) are: R. C. Majumdar, M.A., Ph.D. Vice-Chancellor, Dacca University; H. C. Raychaudhuri, M.A., Ph.D., Carmichael Professor of Ancient Indian History and Culture, Calcutta University; and Kalikinkar Datta, M.A., Ph.D. Premchand Raychand Scholar, Mount Medallist, Griffith Prizeman, Professor and Head of the Department of History, Patna College, Patna
  4. ^Edward James Rapson; Wolseley Haig; Richard Burn; Henry Dodwell; Mortimer Wheeler, eds. (1968). The Cambridge History of India. 4. p. 470.
  5. ^note
  6. ^ abcdefghHemacandra 1998, pp. 155–157, 168–188.
  7. ^Modelski, George (1964). "Kautilya: Foreign Policy and International System in the Ancient Hindu World". American Political Science Review. Cambridge University Press. 58 (3): 549–560. doi:10.2307/1953131. JSTOR 1953131.; Quote: "Kautilya is believed to have been Chanakya, a Brahmin who served as Chief Minister to Chandragupta (321–296 B.C.), the founder of the Mauryan Empire."
  8. ^ abHemacandra 1998, pp. 175–188.
  9. ^ abcdeHemacandra 1998, pp. 176–177.
  10. ^Walter Eugene, Clark (1919). "The Importance of Hellenism from the Point of View of Indic-Philology". Classical Philology. 14 (4): 297–313. doi:10.1086/360246.
  11. ^"Strabo 15.2.1(9)". Archived from the original on 3 February 2009. Retrieved 14 July 2017.
  12. ^Thomas McEvilley, "The Shape of Ancient Thought", Allworth Press, New York, 2002, ISBN 1581152035, p.367
  13. ^India, the Ancient Past, Burjor Avari, p. 106-107
  14. ^Tarn, W. W. (1940). "Two Notes on Seleucid History: 1. Seleucus' 500 Elephants, 2. Tarmita". The Journal of Hellenic Studies. 60: 84–94. doi:10.2307/626263. JSTOR 626263.
  15. ^Arora, U. P. (1991). "The Indika of Megasthenes — an Appraisal". Annals of the Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute. 72/73 (1/4): 307–329. JSTOR 41694901.
  16. ^Roy, Raja Ram Mohan (24 November 2015). India before Alexander: A New Chronology. Mount Meru publishing.
  17. ^Arya, Vedveer (24 January 2020). The Chronology of India: From Mahabharata to Medieval Era - Vol I. Aryabhata Publications.
  18. ^Dupont-Sommer, André (1970). "Une nouvelle inscription araméenne d'Asoka trouvée dans la vallée du Laghman (Afghanistan)". Comptes rendus des séances de l'Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres. 114 (1): 158–173. doi:10.3406/crai.1970.12491.
  19. ^MV Krishna Rao (1958, Reprinted 1979), Studies in Kautilya, 2nd Edition, OCLC 551238868, ISBN 978-8121502429, pages 13–14, 231–233
  20. ^Modelski, George (1964). "Kautilya: Foreign Policy and International System in the Ancient Hindu World". American Political Science Review. 58 (3): 549–560. doi:10.2307/1953131. JSTOR 1953131.; Quote: "Kautilya is believed to have been Chanakya, a Brahmin who served as Chief Minister to Chandragupta (321–296 B.C.), the founder of the Mauryan Empire."
  21. ^ abVaradpande 2006, pp. 32–34 with Figure 11.
  22. ^Mookerji, Radhakumud (1966). Chandragupta Maurya and His Times. Motilal Banarsidass Publ. ISBN .
  23. ^ abHemacandra 1998, pp. 185–188.
  24. ^Commemorative postage stamp on Chandragupta MauryaArchived 27 April 2013 at the Wayback Machine, Press Information Bureau, Govt. of India
  25. ^The Courtesan and the Sadhu, A Novel about Maya, Dharma, and God, October 2008, Dharma Vision LLC., ISBN 978-0-9818237-0-6, Library of Congress Control Number: 2008934274
  26. ^Bhagwan Das Garga (1996). So Many Cinemas: The Motion Picture in India. Eminence Designs. p. 43. ISBN .
  27. ^Screen World Publication's 75 Glorious Years of Indian Cinema: Complete Filmography of All Films (silent & Hindi) Produced Between 1913-1988. Screen World Publication. 1988. p. 109.
  28. ^Hervé Dumont (2009). L'Antiquité au cinéma: vérités, légendes et manipulations. Nouveau Monde. ISBN .
  29. ^"Chanakya Chandragupta (1977)". IMDb. Archived from the original on 11 March 2016. Retrieved 20 February 2016.
  30. ^"Television". The Indian Express. 8 September 1991. Archived from the original on 11 May 2018. Retrieved 22 August 2017.
  31. ^"Chandragupta Maurya comes to small screen". Zee News. 13 January 2011. Archived from the original on 3 March 2016.
  32. ^"Chandragupta Maurya on Sony TV?". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 4 January 2016.
  33. ^TV, Imagine. "Channel". TV Channel. Archived from the original on 25 July 2011.
  34. ^"Real truth behind Chandragupta's birth, his first love Durdhara and journey to becoming the Mauryan King". 17 October 2016. Archived from the original on 28 October 2017.
  35. ^"'Chandraguta Maurya' to launch in November on Sony TV". Archived from the original on 13 November 2018. Retrieved 18 November 2018.
  36. ^"Civilization VI – The Official Site | News | CIVILIZATION VI: RISE AND FALL - CHANDRAGUPTA LEADS INDIA". civilization.com. Archived from the original on 27 July 2018. Retrieved 26 July 2018.

Sources[edit]

  • Albinski, Henry S. (1958), "The Place of the Emperor Asoka in Ancient Indian Political Thought", Midwest Journal of Political Science, 2 (1): 62–75, doi:10.2307/2109166, JSTOR 2109166
  • Allan, J (1958), The Cambridge Shorter History Of India, Cambridge University Press
  • Allchin, F. R.; Erdosy, George (1995), The Archaeology of Early Historic South Asia: The Emergence of Cities and States, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 
  • Appian, History of Rome, The Syrian Wars
  • Asher, Frederick (2015), Brown, Rebecca M.; Hutton, Deborah S. (eds.), A Companion to Asian Art and Architecture, John Wiley & Sons, ISBN 
  • Barua, Pradeep (2005), The State at War in South Asia, 2, Nebraska Press, ISBN ,
  • Bentley, Jerry (1993), Old World Encounters: Cross-Cultural Contacts and Exchanges in Pre-Modern Times, Oxford University Press
  • Bhattacharyya, P. K. (1977), Historical Geography of Madhyapradesh from Early Records, Motilal Banarsidass
  • Boesche, Roger (2003), "Kautilya's Arthaśāstra on War and Diplomacy in Ancient India"(PDF), The Journal of Military History, 67 (1): 9, doi:10.1353/jmh.2003.0006, ISSN 0899-3718, S2CID 154243517
  • Brown, Rebecca M.; Hutton, Deborah S. (22 June 2015), A Companion to Asian Art and Architecture, John Wiley & Sons, ISBN 
  • Dikshitar, V. R. Ramachandra (1993), The Mauryan Polity, Motilal Banarsidass Publ., ISBN 
  • Dundas, Paul (2003), The Jains, Routledge, ISBN 
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Chandragupta Maurya 20th December 2018 Written Episode, Written Update on TellyUpdates.com

Chandragupta returns to Chanakya’s place tired at night and seeing Chanakya says he will meet him tomorrow morning. Chanakya asks to describe if anything important happened at palace. Chandragupta reminisces Mura pricking thorn into Dhananand’s foot. Chanakya asks him to finish daily task before sleeping. Chandragupta walks with him. Chankya gives him pot and asks him to transfer water from one tank to another. Chandragupta says he has gone mad to give him this task, starts filling pot and seeing it has hole says he cannot fill tanks even in days with this
holed pot. Chanakya says he does not have any other go and says this pot is much lighter than bodyguards’ swords he was unable to pick today. Chandragupta asks how does he know. Chanakya says looking at his sword, he has not used it today and has pain in right hand. Chandragupta stands in shock. Chanakya says if he starts his task, he can finish by morning, but if he tries to understand him, he will take ages. Chandragupta starts his task.

Dhananand walks to his favorite horse Toofan and asks him to guide him like he does usually, slave Mura dared to take out blood drop from his foot and is very arrogant, how to control him. He punishes Toofan and says this is what Toofan wanted to guide him that Mura can be controlled only by punishment; he will punish her before his special guest arrives. Mura hears his conversation and thinks who is that special guest.

Chandragupta’s friends wake up at midnight to help him. Chanakya walks in and showing Stulbhadra’s food says he broke role, so he will not get breakfast. Stulbhadra opposes. Chanakya says he will not get even lunch and dinner. Another friend asks what he wants to tech Chandragupta with this task. Chanakya chants sansrkit shloka and says with fetching water, he is strengthening Chandragupta’s arm and making him stable and powerful for his future to bear his enemy’s attacks. He continues his explanation.

Dhananand drags Mura tied to a rope to market and says she took a drop of blood from his foot, he will burn her whole blood and make her difficult to even move. He announces that his special guest will pass through this market lane and wants it to be clean and pleasantly smelling, nobody should have to work except slave Mura, she has to finish all the tasks herself and orders Bhadrasaal to make sure she finishes all the tasks and punish if she does not. Mura starts task. Chandragupta walks in. She hides thinking he will feel bad and try to oppose if he sees her as slave. Chandragupta asks Bhadrasaal who is the special guest coming. Bhadrasaal angry shouts to get away and let him do his duty and orders slave to come out and continue her task. Mura gets tensed. Chandragupta asks slave to come out..

Chanakya niti: Chanakya says fear, if it is in mind, it will protect life, but if it comes out, it will harm life; nature’s most harmful animal is snake, it can bite and kill anyone, but it hides and keeps itself safe, similarly one has to act as powerful and hide their fears.

Precap: Chandragupta rides horse Toofan. Dhananand punishes him asksing if he is not afraid of his death.

Update Credit to: MA

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2018 december maurya chandragupta 20th

Chandragupta Maurya - Ep 27 - Full Episode - 20th December, 2018 - Download This Video

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Click here to Subscribe to SonyLIV: http://bit.ly/2gP2kJq Click here to watch full the episodes of Chandragupta Maurya: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLzufeTFnhupzxaACnkKFDtl7TlK-_iqf2 Episode 27: Dhana Nanda The Evil King ----------------------------------------------------------------- Chanakya instructs Chandra his next move, and in exchange of information, Chanakya has something to offer. Dhana Nanda has lost his clam and has started making Mura his prime labor. Watch the full episode now! More Useful Links : * Visit us at http://www.sonyliv.com * Like us on Facebook: http://bit.ly/1BjA6ZG * Follow us on Twitter: http://www.twitter.com/SonyLIV Also get Sony LIV app on your mobile * Google Play - http://bit.ly/1uq83Ep * iTunes - https://apple.co/1pSCSSy About Chandragupta Maurya: ------------------------------------------------ This is a historical saga of the first king of united India, Chandragupta Maurya. After the death of Porus, Alexander has left behind his general, Seleucus Nicator to expand his kingdom in Bharat. With his selfish motives, Dhananand, the powerful king of Magadh, remains the biggest hindrance for United Bharat. With the Internal & External threats, how will Chanakya team up with Chandragupta Maurya to take forward the vision of 'AKHAND BHARAT'? Chandragupta Maurya - a reluctant student, who has no feelings for his motherland, harbors only one goal - to earn his freedom from the hunter who he was sold to as a child. Chanakya, the wise strategist who is completely dedicated to the dream of a united Bharat, sees through the potential of this street-smart teenager. But will the tenacious & wise Chanakya be able to train Chandragupta in a manner that will enable him to get the whole of India together?
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Chandragupta maurya Episode 20

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https://brainly.in/question/2941727
https://edurev.in/question/1464981/Chandragupta-Maurya-is-said-to-have-spent-his-last
https://twitter.com/solarisepravesh/status/1319893079482978305
https://testbook.com/question-answer/who-was-referred-to-as-sandrocottus-in-the-w–5fb3ed49c89c55b3b774778d
https://www.ncertbooks.guru/mcq-questions-on-mauryan-empire/
https://www.livehistoryindia.com/story/amazing-india/shravanabelagola-its-mauryan-connection/
https://passingmarks.in/questions/6101a74522aaf430ecfc55af/Chandragupta-Maurya-spent-his-last-days-at
http://avwl.gossipreale.it/chandragupta-maurya-20th-december-2018.html
https://www.mapsofindia.com/who-is-who/history/chandragupta-maurya.html
https://www.deccanchronicle.com/lifestyle/viral-and-trending/160218/2018-mahamastakabhisheka-bhadrabahus-footprints-a-hallowed-spot-f.html
http://qzea.orlverona.it/chandragupta-maurya-20th-december-2018.html
https://books.google.ru/books?id=eM49DwAAQBAJ&pg=PA300&lpg=PA300&dq=at+which+of+the+following+place+chandragupta+maurya+spent+his+last+days&source=bl&ots=BLKVhj3Waw&sig=ACfU3U0Wg-MZz5IIBZm1OcmxlaBMKyOy8w&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwjl0v7sydfyAhWDQ_EDHfVmBCUQ6AF6BAgGEAE
https://vitorr.com/search-dtls?keyword=Chandragupta%20Maurya%20spent%20his%20last%20days%20at
https://books.google.ru/books?id=bLZ-DwAAQBAJ&pg=PA96&lpg=PA96&dq=at+which+of+the+following+place+chandragupta+maurya+spent+his+last+days&source=bl&ots=txt0ViSq5y&sig=ACfU3U2mNzKwQ3MhV4aAVLQkOOowk3BIjw&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwjl0v7sydfyAhWDQ_EDHfVmBCUQ6AF6BAgFEAE
https://books.google.ru/books?id=nPQOEAAAQBAJ&pg=PA96&lpg=PA96&dq=at+which+of+the+following+place+chandragupta+maurya+spent+his+last+days&source=bl&ots=AF6gCRbH7c&sig=ACfU3U1Yn3VXTVtbnHvdUbP1H-f0AqrnKA&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwjl0v7sydfyAhWDQ_EDHfVmBCUQ6AF6BAgIEAE
https://books.google.ru/books?id=OLctDwAAQBAJ&pg=PA105&lpg=PA105&dq=at+which+of+the+following+place+chandragupta+maurya+spent+his+last+days&source=bl&ots=s0G_0n8Yiv&sig=ACfU3U2AMd3rmvqCJLj9HIdzRUzkB66pTQ&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwjl0v7sydfyAhWDQ_EDHfVmBCUQ6AF6BAgJEAE
https://www.ijrar.org/papers/IJRAR19D1373.pdf
https://www.tripadvisor.com/ShowUserReviews-g503696-d1977110-r278916809-Bhagawan_Bahubali_Statue_Gommateshwara-Hassan_Hassan_District_Karnataka.html
https://eg4.nic.in/jnv/DFILES/EBOOKS/IR/IndianHistory.pdf
https://www.coursehero.com/file/p7ecq4qv/%C2%B2%C2%B2-Arrange-the-following-dynasties-in-chronological-order-I-Nanda-II-Shishunaga/
https://books.google.ru/books?id=ALQGd13HX_sC&pg=PA141&lpg=PA141&dq=at+which+of+the+following+place+chandragupta+maurya+spent+his+last+days&source=bl&ots=aY4K6iSAL4&sig=ACfU3U2knyIdLnY3GodMvfhQUN7-_1VxRw&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwjl0v7sydfyAhWDQ_EDHfVmBCUQ6AF6BAgEEAE
https://books.google.ru/books?id=lTypZ-R7J1gC&pg=PA143&lpg=PA143&dq=at+which+of+the+following+place+chandragupta+maurya+spent+his+last+days&source=bl&ots=rrLzeN9aU5&sig=ACfU3U1X6YSbDeKPDDJ5vZl1kTex8d19MQ&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwjl0v7sydfyAhWDQ_EDHfVmBCUQ6AF6BAgBEAE
https://www.worldhistory.org/Chandragupta_Maurya/
https://military.wikia.org/wiki/Chandragupta_Maurya
https://kreately.in/debunking-lies-on-origin-of-chandragupta-maurya/
https://books.google.ru/books?id=UbdgaWR_xsUC&pg=SA10-PA34&lpg=SA10-PA34&dq=at+which+of+the+following+place+chandragupta+maurya+spent+his+last+days&source=bl&ots=KWCEoWfOty&sig=ACfU3U1bM8Igxx_BHj6kvyPWRi_5r-HeAA&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwjl0v7sydfyAhWDQ_EDHfVmBCUQ6AF6BAgDEAE
https://socialstudylearner.com/the-mauryan-empire-facts-and-achievement/
https://www.academia.edu/10336151/History_questions
https://books.google.ru/books?id=mHaYRoLuKBgC&pg=SL3-PA49&lpg=SL3-PA49&dq=at+which+of+the+following+place+chandragupta+maurya+spent+his+last+days&source=bl&ots=Hd-j3eX0w6&sig=ACfU3U13IKWk2sKEfaRy7q3S-RlvAjKS0A&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwjl0v7sydfyAhWDQ_EDHfVmBCUQ6AF6BAgCEAE

Sours: https://tonted.com/to/at-which-of-the-following-place-chandragupta-maurya-spent-his-last-days/

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Chandragupta Maurya All Episodes | Chandragupta Maurya 2011 Series

chandragupta maurya all episodes

Chandragupta Maurya Serial King Chandragupta और Chanakya की Life पर Based एक TV Serial है जिसे March 2011 में Imagine Tv पर Broadcast करना शुरू किया गया था, पर Channel के अचानक Shut Down हो जाने से इस Serial के पूरे Episodes नहीं बन पाए।

Chandragupta Maurya serial के Total 124 Episodes बनने थे, जिन में से 105 ही बन पाए। वो सभी 105 episodes YouTube पर uploaded हैं और उनके links इस page पर नीचे दिए गए हैं।

Update: फिलहाल Chandragupta Maurya के all episodes YouTube से हटा दिए गए हैं। लेेकिन यह सभी episodes google पर available हैं।

सभी episodes को देखने का तरीका नीचे बताया गया है।

Directed byBhushan Patel(Mainly)
ProducerSagar Arts
No. of episodes105
Original ReleaseMarch 2011(Imagine Tv)
Know BroadcastDangal Tv

Chandragupta Maurya All Episodes

नीचे Chandragupta Maurya serial के all episodes google search links दिए गए हैं। जब भी आप किसी specific episode पर click करेंगे, तो google search का page open हो जाएगा।

उसके बाद आप search results में से Chandragupta Maurya के उस episode को देख सकते हैं।

Chandragupta Maurya Serial Episodes [1 to 50]

  1. Episode 1 – 11th March 2011
  2. Episode 2 – 12th March 2011
  3. Episode 3 – 18th March 2011
  4. Episode 4 – 19th March 2011
  5. Episode 5 – 25th March 2011
  6. Episode 6 – 26th March 2011
  7. Episode 7 – 1st Aprl 2011
  8. Episode 8 – 2nd April 2011
  9. Episode 9 – 8th April 2011
  10. Episode 10 – 9th April 2011

अगर आपको लगता है कि आप Chandragupta Maurya serial के सभी episodes के इन links के लिए इस page पर दुबारा आएंगे तो please इसे Bookmark कर लीजिए। Bookmark करने के लिए पहले Ctrl+D दबाएं और फिर Enter. Mobile Users इस पेज को Home Screen पर Add कर सकते हैं। Thanks

  1. Episode 11 – 15th April 2011
  2. Episode 12 – 16th April 2011
  3. Episode 13 – 22nd April 2011
  4. Episode 14 – 23rd April 2011
  5. Episode 15 – 29th April 2011
  6. Episode 16 – 30th April 2011
  7. Episode 17 – 6th May 2011
  8. Episode 18 – 7th May 2011
  9. Episode 19 – 13th May 2011
  10. Episode 20 – 14th May 2011
  1. Episode 21 – 20th May 2011
  2. Episode 22 – 21st May 2011
  3. Episode 23 – 27th May 2011
  4. Episode 24 – 28th May 2011
  5. Episode 25 – 3rd June 2011
  6. Episode 26 – 4th June 2011
  7. Episode 27 – 10th June 2011
  8. Episode 28 – 11th June 2011
  9. Episode 29 – 17th June 2011
  10. Episode 30 – 18th June 2011
  1. Episode 31 – 24th June 2011
  2. Episode 32 – 25th June 2011
  3. Episode 33 – 1st July 2011
  4. Episode 34 – 2nd June 2011
  5. Episode 35 – 8th July 2011
  6. Episode 36 – 9th July 2011
  7. Episode 37 – 15th July 2011
  8. Episode 38 – 16th July 2011
  9. Episode 39 – 22nd July 2011
  10. Episode 40 – 23rd July 2011
  1. Episode 41 – 29th July 2011
  2. Episode 42 – 30th July 2011
  3. Episode 43 – 5th August 2011
  4. Episode 44 – 6th August 2011
  5. Episode 45 – 12th August 2011
  6. Episode 46 – 13th August 2011
  7. Episode 47 – 19th August 2011
  8. Episode 48 – 20th August 2011
  9. Episode 49 – 26th August 2011
  10. Episode 50 – 27th August 2011

Chandragupta Maurya Serial Episodes [51 to 100]

  1. Episode 51 – 2nd September 2011
  2. Episode 52 – 3rd September 2011
  3. Episode 53 – 9th September 2011
  4. Episode 54 – 10th September 2011
  5. Episode 55 – 16th September 2011
  6. Episode 56 – 17th September 2011
  7. Episode 57 – 23rd September 2011
  8. Episode 58 – 24th September 2011
  9. Episode 59 – 30th September 2011
  10. Episode 60 – 1st October 2011
  1. Episode 61 – 7th October 2011
  2. Episode 62 – 8th October 2011
  3. Episode 63 – 14th October 2011
  4. Episode 64 – 15th October 2011
  5. Episode 65 – 21st October 2011
  6. Episode 66 – 22nd October 2011
  7. Episode 67 – 28th October 2011
  8. Episode 68 – 29th October 2011
  9. Episode 69 – 4th November 2011
  10. Episode 70 – 5th November 2011
  1. Episode 71 – 11th November 2011
  2. Episode 72 – 12th November 2011
  3. Episode 73 – 18th November 2011
  4. Episode 74 – 19th November 2011
  5. Episode 75 – 25th November 2011
  6. Episode 76 – 26th November 2011
  7. Episode 77 – 2nd December 2011
  8. Episode 78 – 3rd December 2011
  9. Episode 79 – 9th December 2011
  10. Episode 80 – 10th December 2011
  1. Episode 81 – 16th December 2011
  2. Episode 82 – 17th December 2011
  3. Episode 83 – 23rd December 2011
  4. Episode 84 – 24th December 2011
  5. Episode 85 – 30th December 2011
  6. Episode 86 – 31st December 2011
  7. Episode 87 – 6th January 2012
  8. Episode 88 – 7th January 2012
  9. Episode 89 – 13th January 2012
  10. Episode 90 – 14th January 2012
  1. Episode 91 – 20th January 2012
  2. Episode 92 – 21st January 2012
  3. Episode 93 – 27th January 2011
  4. Episode 94 – 28th January 2012
  5. Episode 95 – 3rd February 2012
  6. Episode 96 – 4th February 2012
  7. Episode 97 – 11th February 2012
  8. Episode 98 – 18th February 2012
  9. Episode 99 – 25th February 2012
  10. Episode 100 – 3rd March 2012

Chandragupta Maurya Last Episode [101 to 105]

  1. [Episode 101]
  2. [Episode 102]
  3. [Episode 103]
  4. [Episode 104]
  5. [Episode 105]

Chandragupta Maurya Last Episode [106 to 124]

Chandragupta Maurya Episode 106 to 124

Chandragupta Maurya 2011 All Episodes Download

आप Chandragupta Maurya serial के episodes download करने के लिए पहले उनके links copy करें।

जिस episode को download करना है, उसका link copy करें। अगर आप Chrome जैसे किसी browser की help से open करते हैं, तो आप उसे ऊपर address-bar से easily copy कर सकते हैं।

Smartphone users का link अगर YouTube में open होता है, तो वो नीचे Share पर click करें। Copy Link पर click करने के बाद उस video का link copy हो जाएगा।

अब YouTube videos के copy किए गए link को download कैसे करना है? यह हमने यहां पर बताया हुआ है।

Additional Information On Chandragupta Maurya Serial

Cast of The Serial

Actor NameRole
Ashish SharmaChandragupta Maurya
Rushiraj PawarYoung Chandragupta Maurya
Manish WadhwaChanakya (Father of Chanakya)
Rajeev BhardwajBhadrabhatt
Sooraj ThaparDhana Nanda and Mahapadma Nanda
Tej SapruAmatya (pramukh) Rakshas
Romanch MehtaPurushdatt
Ali HasanShikari (Virajas)
Mohak MeetAditya
Ankit ShahYounger Shashank
Nitin PrabhatAambhik
Siddhharth DhandaYoung Digvijay
Ravi Patel Akshay
Malini SenguptaChitrarupa
Deepti DhyaniMura (mother of Chandragupta Maurya)
Onkar Nath MishraAcharya Shreshtha
Sumit VyasAmbhik
Rohit PurohitBhadrasaal
Lallit Singh NegiDigvijay
Vishal Aditya SinghShashank
Raj PremiAhirya
Nidhi TikooDurdhara
Tia GandwaniMihika (Vishkanya)
Yashashri MasurkarMrignayani
Rajesh ShringarpureSeleucus
Ankit KakkarAryeman
Shiraz HussainAlexander the Great (Sikandar)

Chandragupta Maurya Serial Broadcasting on Dangal Tv

Chandragupta Serial को December 2014 में Dangal Tv पर शुरु किया गया, Production Company ने कहा कि अगर इस Show को High TRP मिलती है तो वो इसके बाकी के Episodes भी Shot करेंगे, पर ऐसा हो ना सका।

तब से Dangal Tv पर जब भी यह Serial खत्म होता है तो इसे दुबारा से शुरू कर दिया गया है।

Tags : Chandragupta Maurya All Episodes

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