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Cassette tape

Magnetic tape recording format for audio recording and playback

This article is about a tape format commonly used for audio recording introduced by Philips in For other audio, video and data tape cassette formats, see Cassette and cartridge tapes.

The Compact Cassette or Musicassette (MC), also commonly called the tape cassette,[2]cassette tape, audio cassette, or simply tape or cassette, is an analogmagnetic tape recording format for audio recording and playback. It was developed by the Dutch company Philips in Hasselt, Belgium, by Lou Ottens and his team. It was introduced in September Compact Cassettes come in two forms, either already containing content as a prerecorded cassette (Musicassette), or as a fully recordable "blank" cassette. Both forms have two sides and are reversible by the user.[3]

The compact cassette technology was originally designed for dictation machines, but improvements in fidelity led the Compact Cassette to supplant the stereo 8-track cartridge and reel-to-reel tape recording in most non-professional applications.[4] Its uses ranged from portable audio to home recording to data storage for early microcomputers. The first cassette player (although mono) designed for use in car dashboards was introduced in From the early s to mids, the cassette was one of the two most common formats for prerecorded music, first alongside the LP record and later the compact disc (CD).[5]

Compact Cassettes contain two miniature spools, between which the magnetically coated, polyester-type plastic film (magnetic tape) is passed and wound.[6] These spools and their attendant parts are held inside a protective plastic shell which is 4 by by inches (10&#;cm ×&#;&#;cm ×&#;&#;cm) at its largest dimensions. The tape itself is commonly referred to as "eighth-inch" tape, supposedly 1&#;8 inch (&#;mm) wide, but it is slightly larger: inches (&#;mm).[7] Two stereo pairs of tracks (four total) or two monaural audio tracks are available on the tape; one stereo pair or one monophonic track is played or recorded when the tape is moving in one direction and the second (pair) when moving in the other direction. This reversal is achieved either by flipping the cassette, or by the reversal of tape movement ("auto-reverse") when the mechanism detects that the tape has come to an end.[8]

History[edit]

Before the Compact Cassette[edit]

Wollensak portable reel-to-reel tape recorder

Compact Cassette vs. RCA Tape Cartridge

In , AEG released the first reel-to-reel tape recorder with the commercial name "Magnetophon". It was based on the invention of the magnetic tape by Fritz Pfleumer in These machines were very expensive and relatively difficult to use and were therefore used mostly by professionals in radio stations and recording studios.

After the Second World War, the magnetic tape recording technology proliferated across the world. In the US, Ampex, using equipment obtained in Germany as a starting point, began commercial production of tape recorders. First used in studios to record radio programs, tape recorders quickly found their way into schools and homes. By , 1 million US homes had tape machines.[9]

In , following four years of development, RCA Victor introduced the stereo, quarter-inch, reversible, reel-to-reel RCA tape cartridge.[10][11] The cartridge was large (5 × 7 in, or 13 × 20&#;cm), and few pre-recorded tapes were offered. Despite the multiple versions, it failed.

Consumer use of magnetic tape machines took off in the early s, after playback machines reached a comfortable, user-friendly design. This was aided by the introduction of transistors which replaced the bulky, fragile, and costly vacuum tubes of earlier designs. Reel-to-reel tape then became more suitable for household use, but still remained an esoteric product.

Introduction of the Compact Cassette[edit]

Operating instructions for the Philips/Norelco Cartridge Tape Carry-Corder ()

One of the first cassette recorders from Philips, the Typ EL ()

Inside of a cassette.

In the early s Philips Eindhoven tasked two different teams to design a tape cartridge for thinner and narrower tape compared to what was used in reel-to-reel tape recorders. By , the Vienna division of Philips developed a single-hole cassette, adapted from its German described name Einloch-Kassette.[12] The Belgian team created a two-spool cartridge similar to an earlier RCA design, but much smaller.

Philips selected the two-spool cartridge as a winner and introduced it in Europe on 30 August at the Berlin Radio Show,[20] and in the United States (under the Norelco brand) in November The trademark name Compact Cassette came a year later. The team of Dutch and Belgian origin at Philips was led by the Dutch Lou Ottens in Hasselt, Belgium.[21][22][23]

Philips also offered a machine to play and record the cassettes, the Philips Typ EL . An updated model, Typ EL was offered in the US in November as NorelcoCarry-Corder . By over , recorders had been sold in the US alone and Japan soon became the major source of recorders. By , 85 manufacturers had sold over million players.[19][24] By the end of the s, the cassette business was worth an estimated million dollars.[19] By the early s the compact cassette machines were outselling other types of tape machines by a large margin.[25]

Philips was competing with Telefunken and Grundig (with their DC International format [26]) in a race to establish its cassette tape as the worldwide standard, and it wanted support from Japanese electronics manufacturers.[27] Philips' Compact Cassette became dominant as a result of Sony pressuring Philips to license the format to them free of charge.[28]

In the early years sound quality was mediocre, but it improved dramatically by the early s when it caught up with the quality of 8-track tape and kept improving.[5] The Compact Cassette went on to become a popular (and re-recordable) alternative to the inch vinyl LP during the late s.[5]

Popularity of music cassettes[edit]

The mass production of "blank" (not yet recorded) Compact Cassettes began in in Hanover, Germany.[19] Prerecorded music cassettes (also known as Music-Cassettes, and later just Musicassettes; M.C. for short) were launched in Europe in late The Mercury Record Company, a US affiliate of Philips, introduced M.C. to the US in July The initial offering consisted of 49 titles.[29]

However, the system had been designed initially for dictation and portable use, with the audio quality of early players not well suited for music. Some early models also had an unreliable mechanical design. In , the Advent Corporation introduced their Model tape deck that combined Dolby type B noise reduction and chromium(IV) oxide (CrO2) tape, with a commercial-grade tape transport mechanism supplied by the Wollensak camera division of 3M Corporation. This resulted in the format being taken more seriously for musical use, and started the era of high fidelity cassettes and players.[4]

Although the birth and growth of the cassette began in the s, its cultural moment took place during the s and s.[19] The cassette's popularity grew during these years as a result of being a more effective, convenient and portable way of listening to music.[19] Stereo tape decks and boom boxes became some of the most highly sought-after consumer products of both decades.[19] Portable pocket recorders and high-fidelity ("hi-fi") players, such as Sony's Walkman (), also enabled users to take their music with them anywhere with ease.[19] The increasing user-friendliness of the cassette led to its popularity around the globe.[19][30]

Like the transistor radio in the s and s, the portable CD player in the s, and the MP3 player in the s, the Walkman defined the portable music market for the decade of the '80s, with cassette sales overtaking those of LPs.[5][31] Total vinyl record sales remained higher well into the s due to greater sales of singles, although cassette singles achieved popularity for a period in the s.[31] Another barrier to cassettes overtaking vinyl in sales was shoplifting; compact cassettes were small enough that a thief could easily place one inside a pocket and walk out of a shop without being noticed. To prevent this, retailers in the US would place cassettes inside oversized "spaghetti box" containers or locked display cases, either of which would significantly inhibit browsing, thus reducing cassette sales.[32] During the early s some record labels sought to solve this problem by introducing new, larger packages for cassettes which would allow them to be displayed alongside vinyl records and compact discs, or giving them a further market advantage over vinyl by adding bonus tracks.[32] Willem Andriessen wrote that the development in technology allowed "hardware designers to discover and satisfy one of the collective desires of human beings all over the world, independent of region, climate, religion, culture, race, sex, age and education: the desire to enjoy music at any time, at any place, in any desired sound quality and almost at any wanted price".[33] Critic Robert Palmer, writing in The New York Times in , cited the proliferation of personal stereos as well as extra tracks not available on LP as reasons for the surge in popularity of cassettes.[34]

Between and , the cassette tape was the most popular format in the UK and record labels experimented with innovative packaging designs. A designer during the era explained: "There was so much money in the industry at the time, we could try anything with design." The introduction of the cassette single, called a "cassingle", was also part of this era and featured a music single in Compact Cassette form. Until , cassettes remained the dominant medium for purchasing and listening to music in some developing countries, but compact disc (CD) technology had superseded the Compact Cassette in the vast majority of music markets throughout the world by this time.[35][36]

Cassette culture[edit]

Further information: Cassette culture

Compact cassettes served as catalysts for social change. Their small size, durability and ease of copying helped bring underground rock and punk music behind the Iron Curtain, creating a foothold for Western culture among the younger generations.[37] For similar reasons, cassettes became popular in developing nations.

One of the most famous political uses of cassette tapes was the dissemination of sermons by the exiled Ayatollah Khomeini throughout Iran before the Iranian Revolution, in which Khomeini urged the overthrow of the regime of the Shah, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi.[38] During the military dictatorship of Chile (–) a "cassette culture" emerged where blacklisted music or music that was by other reasons not available as records was shared.[39][40][41] Some pirate cassette producers created brands such as Cumbre y Cuatro that have in retrospect received praise for their contributions to popular music.[41]Armed groups such as Manuel Rodríguez Patriotic Front (FPMR) and the Revolutionary Left Movement (MIR) made use of cassettes to propagandize their struggle.[40]

In s India, cassettes were blamed for bringing unwanted Christian and Islamic influences into traditionally Sikh and Hindu areas. Cassette technology was a booming market for pop music in India, drawing criticism from conservatives while at the same time creating a huge market for legitimate recording companies, as well as pirated tapes.[42] Some sales channels were associated with cassettes: in Spain filling stations often featured a display selling cassettes. While offering also mainstream music these cassettes became associated with genres such as Gipsy rhumba, light music and joke tapes that were very popular in the s and s.[43]

Decline[edit]

Cassettes remained popular for specific applications, such as car audio, personal stereo, telephone answering machines, field recording, home recording, and mixtapes well into the s. Cassettes players were typically more resistant to shocks than CD players, and their lower fidelity was not considered a serious drawback. With the introduction of electronic skip protection it became possible to use portable CD players on the go, and automotive CD players became viable.

By , annual shipments of CD players had reached 5 million, up 21% from the year before; while cassette player shipments had dropped 7% to approximately million.[44] By the early s, the CD player rapidly replaced the cassette player as the default audio component in the majority of new vehicles in Europe and America.[citation needed]

Sales of pre-recorded music cassettes in the US dropped from million in to , by [45] Most of the major US music companies had discontinued production of pre-recorded cassettes by

For audiobooks, the final year that cassettes represented greater than 50% of total market sales was when they were replaced by CDs as the dominant media.[46] Many out-of-print titles, such as those published during the cassette's heyday of the s–s, are only available on the original cassettes.

The last new car with an available cassette player was a Lexus SC [47] The same year, Sony stopped the production of personal cassette players.[48] In , the Oxford English Dictionary removed the word "cassette player" from its 12th edition Concise version.[49] Some media sources mistakenly claimed that the term "cassette tape" was being removed.[50]

In India, music continued to be released on the cassette format due to its low cost until [51]

21st-century use and revival[edit]

Although portable digital recorders are most common today, analog tape remains a desirable option for certain artists and consumers.[52][53] Older genres like "dansband" may favor the format most familiar to their fans.[54] Some musicians and DJs in the independent music community maintain a tradition of using and releasing cassettes due to its low cost and ease of use.[52][53] Underground and DIY communities release regularly, and sometimes exclusively, on cassette format, particularly in experimental music circles and to a lesser extent in hardcore punk, death metal, and black metal circles, out of a fondness for the format. Even among major-label stars, the form has at least one devotee: Thurston Moore claimed in , "I only listen to cassettes."[55] Very few companies (as of ) still make cassettes. Among those are National Audio Company, from the US, and Mulann, also known as Recording The Masters, from France.[56][57] They both make their own magnetic tape, which used to be outsourced.

In , Botswana-based Diamond Studios announced plans[58] for establishing a plant to mass-produce cassettes in a bid to combat piracy. It opened in [59]

In South Korea, the early English education boom for toddlers encourages a continuous demand for English language cassettes, as of [update], due to the affordable cost.[60]

National Audio Company in Missouri, the largest of the few remaining manufacturers of audio cassettes in the US, oversaw the mass production of the "Awesome Mix #1" cassette from the film Guardians of the Galaxy in [61] They reported that they had produced more than 10 million tapes in and that sales were up 20 percent the following year, their best year since they opened in [62] In , cassette sales in the United States rose by 74% to ,[63] In , following several years of shortage, National Audio Company began producing their own magnetic tape, becoming the world's first known manufacturer of an all-new tape stock.[64] Mulann, a company which acquired Pyral/RMGI in and originates from BASF, also started production of its new cassette tape stock in , basing on reel tape formula.[65]

In Japan and South Korea, the pop acts Matsuda Seiko,[66]SHINee,[67] and NCT [68] have released their recent material on limited-run cassettes.

In , retail chain Urban Outfitters, which had long sold LPs, started selling new pre-recorded cassettes (both new and old albums), blank cassettes, and players.[69]

Since , cassette sales have seen a modest resurgence, with , , and all showing increases.[70][71][72]

Features[edit]

Visualization of the magnetic field on a stereo cassette containing a 1kHz audio tone.

The cassette was a great step forward in convenience from reel-to-reel audio tape recording, although, because of the limitations of the cassette's size and speed, it initially compared poorly in quality. Unlike the 4-track stereo open-reel format, the two stereo tracks of each side lie adjacent to each other, rather than being interleaved with the tracks of the other side. This permitted monaural cassette players to play stereo recordings "summed" as mono tracks and permitted stereo players to play mono recordings through both speakers. The tape is &#;in (&#;mm) wide, with each mono track millimetres (&#;in) wide, plus an unrecorded guard band between each track. In stereo, each track is further divided into a left and a right channel of &#;mm (&#;in) each, with a gap of &#;mm (&#;in).[73] The tape moves past the playback head at 1+7&#;8 inches per second (&#;cm/s), the speed being a continuation of the increasingly slower speed series in open-reel machines operating at 30, 15, 7+1&#;2, or 3+3&#;4 inches per second.[7] For comparison, the typical open-reel 1&#;4-inch 4-track consumer format used tape that is inches (&#;mm) wide, each track &#;in (&#;mm) wide, and running at either twice or four times the speed of a cassette.

Cassette types[edit]

Notches on the top surface of the Compact Cassette indicate its type. The rear-most cassette at the top of this picture, with only write-protect notches (here covered by write-protect tabs), is Type I, its tape consisting of iron oxide. The next cassette down, with additional notches adjacent to the write-protect tabs, is Type II, its tape consisting of chrome and cobalt. The bottom two cassettes, featuring the Type II notches plus an additional pair in the middle of the cassette, are Type IV (metal); note the removal of the tabs on the second of these, meaning the tape is write-protected. Type III was a combination of Types I and II but never gained the popularity of the other three types and was made obsolete by Type IV.

Further information: Compact Cassette tape types and formulations

Cassette tapes are made of a polyester-type plastic film with a magnetic coating. The original magnetic material was based on gamma ferric oxide (Fe2O3). Circa , 3M Company developed a cobalt volume-doping process combined with a double-coating technique to enhance overall tape output levels. This product was marketed as "High Energy" under its Scotch brand of recording tapes.[74] Inexpensive cassettes commonly are labeled "low-noise", but typically are not optimized for high frequency response. For this reason, some low-grade IEC Type I tapes have been marketed specifically as better suited for data storage than for sound recording.[citation needed]

In [75]DuPont, the inventor of chromium dioxide (CrO2) manufacturing process, began commercialization of CrO2 media. The first CrO2 cassette was introduced in by Advent,[76] and later strongly backed by BASF, the inventor and longtime manufacturer of magnetic recording tape.[77] Next, coatings using magnetite (Fe3O4) such as TDK's Audua were produced in an attempt to approach or exceed the sound quality of vinyl records. Cobalt-adsorbed iron oxide (Avilyn) was introduced by TDK in and proved very successful. "Type IV" tapes using pure metal particles (as opposed to oxide formulations) were introduced in by 3M under the trade name Metafine. The tape coating on most cassettes sold today as either "normal" or "chrome" consists of ferric oxide and cobalt mixed in varying ratios (and using various processes); there are very few cassettes on the market that use a pure (CrO2) coating.[5]

Simple voice recorders and earlier cassette decks are designed to work with standard ferric formulations. Newer tape decks usually are built with switches and later detectors for the different bias and equalization requirements for higher grade tapes. The most common, iron oxide tapes (defined by the IEC standard,[8] as "Type I") use &#;µs equalization, while chrome and cobalt-adsorbed tapes (IEC Type II) require 70&#;µs equalization. The recording bias levels also were different. BASF and Sony tried a dual layer tape with both ferric oxide and chrome dioxide known as 'ferrichrome' (FeCr) (IEC Type III), but these were available for only a short time in the s. These also use 70&#;µs, just like Type II did. Metal cassettes (IEC Type IV) also use 70&#;µs equalization, and provide still further improvement in sound quality as well as durability. The quality normally is reflected in the price; Type I cassettes generally are the cheapest, and Type IV are usually the most expensive. BASF chrome tape used in commercially pre-recorded cassettes used type I equalization to allow greater high-frequency dynamic range for better sound quality, but the greater selling point for the music labels was that the Type I cassette shell could be used for both ferric and for chrome music cassettes.

Notches on top of the cassette shell indicate the type of tape. Type I cassettes have only write-protect notches, Type II have an additional pair next to the write protection ones, and Type IV (metal) have a third set near the middle of the top of the cassette shell. These allow later cassette decks to detect the tape type automatically and select the proper bias and equalization.

An exception to this standard were mechanical storytelling dolls from the s (e.g. Teddy Ruxpin) which used the Type IV metal configuration cassette shell but had normal Type I voice grade tape inside. These toys used the Type IV notches to detect that a specially coded tape had been inserted, where the audio of the story is stored on the left channel and various cue tones to tell the doll's servos how and when to move along with the story on the right channel.

Most pre-recorded chrome cassettes require &#;µs equalisation and are treated as Type I (with notches as Type I ferric cassettes), to ensure compatibility with budget equipment.

Tape length[edit]

Maxell compact cassettes, C60 (90m) and C90 (m).

Tape length usually is measured in minutes of total playing time. The most popular varieties (sometimes sold with a capital letter C prefixed) are C46 (23 minutes per side), C60 (30 minutes per side), C90, and C The C46 and C60 lengths typically are 15 to 16 micrometers ( to mils) thick, but C90s are 10 to 11&#;μm ( to mils)[78] and (the less common) Cs are just 6&#;μm ( mils) thick,[79] rendering them more susceptible to stretching or breakage. Even C tapes were available at one time,[80] but these were extremely thin and fragile and suffered from such effects as print-through, which made them unsuitable for general use.

minute length were in past available from Maxell (UR ), Sony (CDixI ) and TDK (TDK AE , CDing1 and CDing2 ), only in Japan. All of these were discontinued - Maxell simplified its cassette offer to 10, 20, 60 and minute lengths,[when?] Sony exited the audio cassette market globally,[when?] and Imation, licensee of the TDK trademark, exited the consumer products market.[when?]

Other lengths are (or were) also available from some vendors, including C10, C12 and C15 (useful for saving data from early home computers and in telephone answering machines), C30, C40, C50, C54, C64, C70, C74, C80, C84, C94, C, C, and C As late as , Thomann still offered C10, C20, C30 and C40 IEC Type II tape cassettes for use with 4- and 8-track portastudios.[81]

Most manufacturers load more tape that a label indicates, for example 90 meters ( feet) rather than 86 meters ( feet) of tape for a C60 cassette, and or meters ( or feet) rather than meters ( feet) of tape for a C90 cassette, providing an extra minute or two of playback time per side.

Some companies included a complimentary blank cassette with their portable cassette recorders in the early s. Panasonic's was a C14 and came with a song recorded on side one, and a blank side two. Except for C74 and C, such non-standard lengths always have been hard to find, and tend to be more expensive than the more popular lengths. Home taping enthusiasts may have found certain lengths useful for fitting an album neatly on one or both sides of a tape. For instance, the initial maximum playback time of Compact Discs was 74 minutes, explaining the relative popularity of C74 cassettes.

Track width[edit]

The full tape width is &#;mm. For mono recording the track width is &#;mm. In stereo mode each channel has width of &#;mm with a &#;mm separation to avoid crosstalk.[82]

Head gap[edit]

The head gap of a tape recorder is the space, along the tape path, between the ends of the pole pieces of the head. Without a gap the head would produce a "closed" magnetic field and would not interact enough with the magnetic domains on the tape.

The head-gap width[clarification needed] is 2&#;µm[according to whom?] which gives a theoretical maximum frequency[citation needed] of about 12&#;kHz (at the standard speed of 1 7/8 ips or &#;cm/s). A narrower gap would give a higher frequency limit but also weaker magnetization.[82] However, such limitations can be corrected through equalization in the recording and playback amplification sections, and narrower gaps were quite common, particularly in more expensive cassette machines. For example, the RP-2 series combined record/playback head (used in many Nakamichi cassette decks from the s and s) had a &#;µm gap, which allows for a playback frequency range of up to 20&#;kHz.[citation needed] A narrower gap width makes it harder to magnetize the tape, but is less important to the frequency range during recording than during playback, so a two-head solution can be applied: a dedicated recording head with a wide gap allowing effective magnetization of the tape and a dedicated playback head with a specific width narrow gap, possibly facilitating very high playback frequency ranges well above 20&#;kHz.[citation needed]

Separate record and playback heads were already a standard feature of more expensive reel-to-reel tape machines when cassettes were introduced, but their application to cassette recorders had to wait until demand developed for higher quality reproduction, and for sufficiently small heads to be produced.

Write-protection[edit]

A compact cassette with write-protect tab for Side 2 removed and then restored.

Most cassettes include a write protection mechanism to prevent re-recording and accidental erasure of important material. There are two indentations on the top of a cassette corresponding to each side of the cassette. On blank cassettes these indentations are protected with plastic tabs that can be broken off to prevent recording on the corresponding side of the cassette. Occasionally and usually on higher-priced cassettes, manufacturers provided a movable panel that could be used to enable or disable write-protect on tapes. Pre-recorded cassettes do not have protective tabs, leaving the indentations open.

If later required, the cassette can be made recordable again by either covering the indentation with a piece of adhesive tape or by putting some filler material into the indentation. On some decks, the write-protect sensing lever can be manually depressed to allow recording on a protected tape. Extra care is required to avoid covering the additional indents on high bias or metal bias tape cassettes adjacent to the write-protect tabs.

Tape leaders[edit]

In most cassettes, the magnetic tape is attached to each spool with a leader, usually made of strong plastic. This leader protects the weaker magnetic tape from the shock occurring when the tape reaches the end. Some leaders are designed to clean the magnetic heads each time the tape is played. Leader also enables to record over an existing recording cleanly, without a blip of sound that otherwise would be left from the previous recording.

Leaders can be complex: a plastic slide-in wedge anchors a short fully opaque plastic tape to the take-up hub; one or more tinted semi-opaque plastic segments follow; the clear leader (a tintless semi-opaque plastic segment) follows, which wraps almost all the way around the supply reel, before splicing to the magnetic tape itself. The clear leader spreads the shock load to a long stretch of tape instead of to the microscopic splice. Various patents have been issued detailing leader construction and associated tape player mechanisms to detect leaders.[83] Cassette tape users would also use spare leaders to repair broken tapes.[citation needed]

The disadvantage with tape leaders is that the sound recording or playback does not start at the beginning of the tape, forcing the user to cue forward to the start of the magnetic section. For certain applications, such as dictation, special cassettes containing leaderless tapes are made, typically with stronger material and for use in machines that had more sophisticated end-of-tape prediction. Home computers that made use of cassettes as a more affordable alternative to floppy discs (e.g. Apple II, Commodore PET) were designed to not start writing or reading data until leaders had spooled past.[citation needed]

Endless loop cassette[edit]

See also: Endless tape cartridge

Some cassettes were made to play a continuous loop of tape without stopping. Lengths available are from around 30 seconds to a standard full length. They are used in situations where a short message or musical jingle is to be played, either continuously or whenever a device is triggered, or whenever continuous recording or playing is needed. Some include a sensing foil on the tape to allow tape players to re-cue. From as early as various patents have been issued, covering such uses as uni-directional, bi-directional, and compatibility with auto-shut-off and anti-tape-eating mechanisms. One variant has a half-width loop of tape for an answering machine outgoing message, and another half-width tape on spools to record incoming messages.[citation needed]

Cassette tape adapter[edit]

Cassette tape adapters allow external audio sources to be played back from any tape player, but were typically used for car audio systems. An attached audio cable with a phone connector converts the electrical signals to be read by the tape head, while mechanical gears simulate reel to reel movement without actual tapes when driven by the player mechanism.[84]

Optional mechanics[edit]

Tape Guide via Security Mechanism (SM)

In order to wind up the tape more reliably, the former BASF (from EMTEC) patented the Special Mechanism or Security Mechanism advertised with the abbreviation SM in the early s, which was temporarily taken over by Agfa under license. This feature each includes a rail to guide the tape to the spool and prevent an unclean roll from forming.[85]

The competition responded by inserting additional deflector pins closer to the coils in the lower plastic case half. Some low-priced and pre-recorded compact cassettes were made without pulleys; the tape is pulled directly over the capstan drive.[citation needed] For the pressure of the tape to the head there is a thinner felt on a glued foam block instead of the usual felt on a leaf spring.[citation needed]

Flaws[edit]

Cassette playback suffered from some flaws frustrating to both professionals and home recording enthusiasts. Tape speed could vary between devices, resulting in pitch that was too low or too high. Speed often was calibrated at the factory, and could not be changed by users. The slow tape speed increased tape hiss and noise, and in practice delivered higher values of wow and flutter. Different tape formulation and noise reduction schemes artificially boosted or cut high frequencies and inadvertently elevated noise levels. Noise reduction also adds some artifacts to the sound which a trained ear can hear, sometimes quite easily. Wow and Flutter, however, can sometimes be added intentionally to recordings for aesthetic reasons. (See Lo-fi music)

A common mechanical problem occurred when a defective player or resistance in the tape path causes a failure to keep sufficient tension on the take-up spool. This would cause the magnetic tape to be fed out through the bottom of the cassette and become tangled in the mechanism of the player. In these cases the player was said to have "eaten" or "chewed" the tape, often destroying the playability of the cassette.[86] This is sometimes referred to as bandsalat, or "tape salad". Splicing blocks, analogous to those used for open-reel 1/4" tape, were available and could be used to remove the damaged portion or repair the break in the tape.

Cassette players and recorders[edit]

See also: Loop bin duplicator

Tapematic audio cassette loaders, used to wind ("load") magnetic tape from tape reels ("pancakes") in the machine into empty cassette tape shells (known as C-0s or C-Zeros) The C-0s have just leader which is cut into two and the tape is attached to the leader, then wound

The first cassette machines (e.g. the Philips EL , introduced in August [17][87]) were simple mono-record and -playback units. Early machines required attaching an external dynamic microphone. Most units from the s onwards also incorporated built-in condenser microphones, which have extended high-frequency response, but may also pick up noises from the recorder's motor.

A portable recorder format still common today is a long box, the width of a cassette, with a speaker at the top, a cassette bay in the middle, and "piano key" controls at the bottom edge. Another format is only slightly larger than the cassette, known popularly as the "Walkman" (a Sony trademark).

The markings of "piano key" controls soon converged and became a de facto standard. They are still emulated on many software control panels. These symbols are commonly a square for "stop", a vertically pointed triangle with a line under it for "eject", a right-pointing triangle for "play", double triangles for "fast-forward" and "rewind", a red dot for "record", and a vertically divided square (two rectangles side-by-side) for "pause".

Main article: Cassette deck

A typical portable desktop cassette recorder from RadioShack

Stereo recorders eventually evolved into high fidelity and were known as cassette decks, after the reel-to-reel decks. Hi-Fi cassette decks, in contrast to cassette recorders and cassette players, often didn't have built-in amplification or speakers. Many formats of cassette players and recorders have evolved over the years. Initially all were top loading, usually with cassette on one side, and VU meters and recording level controls on the other side. Older models used combinations of levers and sliding buttons for control.

NakamichiRX cassette deck; this one has an auto reverse feature that rotates the cassette, hence the bump in the middle.

A major innovation was the front-loading arrangement. Pioneer's angled cassette bay and the exposed bays of some Sansui models eventually were standardized as a front-loading door into which a cassette would be loaded. Later models would adopt electronic buttons, and replace conventional meters (which could be "pegged" when overloaded[clarification needed]) with electronic LED or vacuum fluorescent displays, with level controls typically being controlled by either rotary controls or side-by-side sliders. BIC and Marantz briefly offered models that could be run at double speeds, but Nakamichi was widely recognized as one of the first companies to create decks that rivaled reel-to-reel decks with frequency response from the full 20–20,&#;Hz range, low noise, and very low wow and flutter.[88][89] The 3-head closed-loop dual capstan Nakamichi () is one early example. Unlike typical cassette decks that use a single head for both record and playback plus a second head for erasing, the Nakamichi , like the better reel-to-reel recorders, used three separate heads to optimize these functions.

Other contenders for the highest "HiFi" quality on this medium were two companies already widely known for their excellent quality reel-to-reel tape recorders: Tandberg and Revox (consumer brand of the Swiss professional Studer company for studio equipment). Tandberg started with combi-head machines, such as the TCD , and continued with the TCD 3x0 series with separate playback and recording heads. All TCD-models possessed dual-capstan drives, belt-driven from a single capstan motor and two separate reel motors. Frequency range extended to 18&#;kHz. After a disastrous overinvestment in colour television production, Tandberg folded and revived without the HiFi-branch these came from.

Revox went one step further: after much hesitation about whether to accept cassettes as a medium capable for meeting their strict standards from reel-to-reel recorders at all, they produced their BMK I (Dolby B) and MK II (Dolby B&C) machines. Both cassette units possessed double capstan drives, but with two independent, electronically controlled capstan motors and two separate reel motors. The head assembly moved by actuating a damped solenoid movement, eliminating all belt drives and other wearable parts. These machines rivaled the Nakamichi in frequency and dynamic range. The BMKII also achieved 20–20,&#;Hz and dynamics of over 72&#;dB with Dolby C on chrome and slightly less dynamic range, but greater headroom with metal tapes and Dolby C.[citation needed] Revox adjusted the frequency range on delivery with many years of use in mind: when new, the frequency curve went upwards a few dB at 15–20&#;kHz, aiming for flat response after 15 years of use, and headwear to match.

A last step taken by Revox produced even more-advanced cassette drives with electronic fine tuning of bias and equalization during recording. Revox also produced amplifiers, a very expensive FM tuner, and a pickup with a special parallel-arm mechanism of their own design. After releasing that product, Studer encountered financial difficulties. It had to save itself by folding its Revox-branch and all its consumer products (except their last reel-to-reel recorder, the B77).

While some[who?] might say that Nakamichi violated the tape recording standards to achieve the highest dynamics possible, producing non-compatible cassettes for playback on other machines, the reasons for this are more complex than they appear on the surface.[citation needed] Different interpretations of the cassette standard resulted in a 4&#;dB ambiguity at 16&#;kHz. Technically, both camps in this debate were still within the original cassette specification as no tolerance for frequency response is provided above &#;kHz and all calibration tones above &#;kHz are considered optional.[90][91] But also Nakamichi is not error-prone. Decreasing noise at 16&#;kHz also decreases the maximum signal level at 16&#;kHz, the HighFrequency-Dynamics stay almost constant.[92]

A third company, the Danish Bang & Olufsen improved the Dolby HX "head room extension" system for reliably reducing tape saturation effects at short wavelength (high frequencies) despite higher bias levels.[93] This advanced method is called Dolby HX Pro in full and patented. HX Pro was adopted by many other high-end manufacturers.

As they became aimed at more casual users, fewer decks had microphone inputs. Dual decks became popular and incorporated into home entertainment systems of all sizes for tape dubbing. Although the quality would suffer each time a source was copied, there are no mechanical restrictions on copying from a record, radio, or another cassette source. Even as CD recorders are becoming more popular, some incorporate cassette decks for professional applications.[citation needed]

Radio–cassette players of the design also called "ghetto-blasters" and "boomboxes"

Another format that made an impact on culture in the s was the radio-cassette, aka the "boom box" (a name used commonly only in English-speaking North America), which combined the portable cassette deck with a radio tuner and speakers capable of producing significant sound levels. These devices became synonymous with urban youth culture in entertainment, leading to the nickname "ghetto blaster". The boom box also allowed people to enjoy music on the go and share it with friends, contributing to cultural practises such as breakdancing.

Applications for car stereos varied widely. Auto manufacturers in the US typically would fit a cassette slot into their standard large radio faceplates. Europe and Asia would standardize on DIN and double DIN sized faceplates. In the s, a high-end installation would have a Dolby AM/FM cassette deck, and they rendered the 8-track cartridge obsolete in car installations because of space, performance, and audio quality. In the s and s, as the cost of building CD players declined, many manufacturers offered a CD player. The CD player eventually supplanted the cassette deck as standard equipment, but some cars, especially those targeted at older drivers, were offered with the option of a cassette player, either by itself or sometimes in combination with a CD slot. Most new cars can still accommodate aftermarket cassette players, and the auxiliary jack advertised for MP3 players can be used also with portable cassette players, but was the first model year for which no manufacturer offered factory-installed cassette players.[94]

Although the cassettes themselves were relatively durable, the players required regular maintenance to perform properly. Head cleaning may be done with long swabs, soaked with isopropyl alcohol, or cassette-shaped devices that could be inserted into a tape deck to remove buildup of iron-oxide from the heads, tape-drive capstan, and pinch-roller. Some otherwise normal recording tapes included sections of leader that could clean the tape heads. One of the concerns of the time however was the use of abrasive cleaning tape. Some of the cleaning tapes actually felt rough to the touch and were considered damaging to the heads. Similarly shaped demagnetizers used magnets to degauss the deck, which kept sound from becoming distorted (see Cassette demagnetizer).

Applications[edit]

Audio[edit]

The Compact Cassette originally was intended for use in dictation machines. In this capacity, some later-model cassette-based dictation machines could also run the tape at half speed (1516 in/s) as playback quality was not critical. The cassette soon became a popular medium for distributing prerecorded music—initially through The Philips Record Company (and subsidiary labels Mercury and Philips in the US). As of , one still finds cassettes used for a variety of purposes, such as journalism, oral history, meeting and interview transcripts, audio-books, and so on. Police are still big buyers of cassette tapes, as some lawyers "don't trust digital technology for interviews".[95] However, they are starting to give way to Compact Discs and more "compact" digital storage media. Prerecorded cassettes were also employed as a way of providing chemotherapy information to recently diagnosed cancer patients as studies found anxiety and fear often gets in the way of the information processing.[96]

The cassette quickly found use in the commercial music industry. One artifact found on some commercially produced music cassettes was a sequence of test tones, called SDR (Super Dynamic Range, also called XDR, or eXtended Dynamic Range) soundburst tones, at the beginning and end of the tape, heard in order of low frequency to high. These were used during SDR/XDR's duplication process to gauge the quality of the tape medium. Many consumers objected to these tones since they were not part of the recorded music.[97]

Broadcasting[edit]

News reporting, documentary, and human interest broadcast operations often used portable Marantz PMD-series recorders for the recording of speech interviews. The key advantages of the Marantz portable recorders were the accommodation of professional microphones with an XLR connector, normal and double tape speed recording for extended frequency response, Dolby and dbx noise reduction systems, manual or automatic gain control (AGC) level control, peak limiter, multiple tape formulation accommodation, microphone and line level input connections, unbalanced RCA stereo input and output connections, live or tape monitoring, VU meter, headphone jack, playback pitch control, and operation on AC power or batteries optimized for long duration. Unlike less-expensive portable recorders that were limited to automatic gain control (AGC) recording schemes, the manual recording mode preserved low noise dynamics and avoided the automatic elevation of noise.

Home studio[edit]

Beginning in , Tascam introduced the Portastudio line of four- and eight-track cassette recorders for home-studio use.

In the simplest configuration, rather than playing a pair of stereo channels of each side of the cassette, the typical "portastudio" used a four-track tape head assembly to access four tracks on the cassette at once (with the tape playing in one direction). Each track could be recorded to, erased, or played back individually, allowing musicians to overdub themselves and create simple multitrack recordings easily, which could then be mixed down to a finished stereo version on an external machine. To increase audio quality in these recorders, the tape speed sometimes was doubled to 33/4&#;inches per second, in comparison to the standard 178 ips; additionally, dbx, Dolby B or Dolby C noise reduction provided compansion (compression of the signal during recording with equal and opposite expansion of the signal during playback), which yields increased dynamic range by lowering the noise level and increasing the maximum signal level before distortion occurs. Multi-track cassette recorders with built-in mixer and signal routing features ranged from easy-to-use beginner units up to professional-level recording systems.[98]

Although professional musicians typically used multitrack cassette machines only as "sketchpads", Bruce Springsteen's Nebraska was recorded entirely on a four-track cassette tape.

Home dubbing[edit]

A Magnavox dual deck recorder with high-speed dubbing. Doors are open showing capstans.

Most cassettes were sold blank, and used for recording (dubbing) the owner's records (as backup, to play in the car, or to make mixtape compilations), their friends' records, or music from the radio. This practice was condemned by the music industry with such alarmist slogans as "Home Taping Is Killing Music". However, many claimed that the medium was ideal for spreading new music and would increase sales, and strongly defended their right to copy at least their own records onto tape. For a limited time in the early s Island Records sold chromium dioxide "One Plus One"[99] cassettes that had an album prerecorded on one side and the other was left blank for the purchaser to use, another early example being the "C·30 C·60 C·90 Go" cassingle by Bow Wow Wow where the b-side of the tape was blank, allowing the purchaser to record their own b-side. Cassettes were also a boon to people wishing to tape concerts (unauthorized or authorized) for sale or trade, a practice tacitly or overtly encouraged by many bands, such as the Grateful Dead, with a more counterculture bent. Blank cassettes also were an invaluable tool to spread the music of unsigned acts, especially within tape trading networks.

Various legal cases arose surrounding the dubbing of cassettes. In the UK, in the case of CBS Songs v. Amstrad (), the House of Lords found in favor of Amstrad that producing equipment that facilitated the dubbing of cassettes, in this case a high-speed twin cassette deck that allowed one cassette to be copied directly onto another, did not constitute copyright infringement by the manufacturer.[] In a similar case, a shop owner who rented cassettes and sold blank tapes was not liable for copyright infringement even though it was clear that his customers likely were dubbing them at home.[] In both cases, the courts held that manufacturers and retailers could not be held accountable for the actions of consumers.[]

As an alternative to home dubbing, in the late s, the Personics company installed booths in record stores across America that allowed customers to make personalized mixtapes from a digitally encoded back-catalogue with customised printed covers.[]

Institutional duplication[edit]

Educational, religious, corporate, military, and broadcasting institutions benefited from messaging proliferation through accessibly priced duplicators, offered by Telex Communications, Wollensak, Sony, and others. The duplicators would operate at double (or greater) tape speed. Systems were scalable, enabling the user to purchase initially one "master" unit (typically with 3 "copy" bays) and add "slave" units for expanded duplication abilities.

Data recording [edit]

The Hewlett-PackardHP was one of the first desktop computers in the early s to use automatically controlled cassette tapes for storage. It could save and find files by number, using a clear leader to detect the end of tape. These would be replaced by specialized cartridges, such as the 3M DC-series. Many of the earliest microcomputers implemented the Kansas City standard for digital data storage. Most home computers of the late s and early s could use cassettes for data storage as a cheaper alternative to floppy disks, though users often had to manually stop and start a cassette recorder. Even the first version of the IBM PC of had a cassette port and a command in its ROMBASIC programming language to use it. However, IBM cassette tape was seldom used, as by floppy drives had become commonplace in high-end machines.

Nintendo's Famicom had an available cassette data recorder, used for saving programs created with the hardware's version of BASIC and saving progress in some Famicom games. It was never released outside Japan, but the North American versions of some of the compatible games can technically be used with it, since many early copies of two of the games (Excitebike and Wrecking Crew) are actually just the Japanese versions in a different shell, and Nintendo intentionally included compatibility in later prints of those titles and in other games since they were planning on releasing the recorder in the region anyway.

The typical encoding method for computer data was simple FSK, typically at data rates of to bit/s, although some games used special, faster-loading routines, up to around bit/s. A rate of bit/s equates to a capacity of around kilobytes per side of a minute tape.

German-made cassettes sold for computer data recording, mid s

Among home computers that used primarily data cassettes for storage in the late s were Commodore PET (early models of which had a cassette drive built-in), TRS and Apple II, until the introduction of floppy disk drives and hard drives in the early s made cassettes virtually obsolete for day-to-day use in the US. However, they remained in use on some portable systems such as the TRS Model line—often in microcassette form—until the early s.

A streamer cassette for data storage, adapted from the audio Compact Cassette format

Floppy disk storage had become the standard data storage medium in the United States by the mids; for example, by the majority of software sold by Atari Program Exchange was on floppy. Cassette remained more popular for 8-bit computers such as the Commodore 64, ZX Spectrum, MSX, and Amstrad CPC in many countries such as the United Kingdom[][] (where 8-bit software was mostly sold on cassette until that market disappeared altogether in the early s). Reliability of cassettes for data storage is inconsistent, with many users recalling repeated attempts to load video games;[] the Commodore Datasette used very reliable, but slow, digital encoding.[] In some countries, including the United Kingdom, Poland, Hungary, and the Netherlands, cassette data storage was so popular that some radio stations would broadcast computer programs that listeners could record onto cassette and then load into their computer.[] See BASICODE.

The use of better modulation techniques, such as QPSK or those used in modern modems, combined with the improved bandwidth and signal-to-noise ratio of newer cassette tapes, allowed much greater capacities (up to 60 MB) and data transfer speeds of 10 to 17&#;kbit/s on each cassette. They found use during the s in data loggers for scientific and industrial equipment.

The cassette was adapted into what is called a streamer cassette (also known as a "D/CAS" cassette), a version dedicated solely for data storage, and used chiefly for hard disk backups and other types of data. Streamer cassettes look almost exactly the same as a standard cassette, with the exception of having a notch about one quarter-inch wide and deep situated slightly off-center at the top edge of the cassette. Streamer cassettes also have a re-usable write-protect tab on only one side of the top edge of the cassette, with the other side of the top edge having either only an open rectangular hole, or no hole at all. This is due to the entire one-eighth inch width of the tape loaded inside being used by a streamer cassette drive for the writing and reading of data, hence only one side of the cassette being used. Streamer cassettes can hold anywhere from kilobytes to megabytes of data.[]

Video[edit]

The PXL was a camcorder that recorded onto compact cassettes.

Rivals and successors[edit]

Size comparison of Elcaset (left) with standard Compact Cassette

Elcaset is a short-lived audio format that was created by Sony in that is about twice the size, using larger tape and a higher recording speed. Unlike the original cassette, the Elcaset was designed for sound quality. It was never widely accepted, as the quality of standard cassette decks rapidly approached high fidelity.

Technical development of the cassette effectively ceased when digital recordable media, such as DAT and MiniDisc, were introduced in the late s and early-to-mid s, with Dolby S recorders marking the peak of Compact Cassette technology. Anticipating the switch from analog to digital format, major companies, such as Sony, shifted their focus to new media.[] In , Philips introduced the Digital Compact Cassette (DCC), a DAT-like tape in almost the same shell as a Compact Cassette. It was aimed primarily at the consumer market. A DCC deck could play back both types of cassettes. Unlike DAT, which was accepted in professional usage because it could record without lossy compression effects, DCC failed in home, mobile and professional environments, and was discontinued in []

A Compact Cassette and a Microcassette

The microcassette largely supplanted the full-sized cassette in situations where voice-level fidelity is all that is required, such as in dictation machines and answering machines. Microcassettes have in turn given way to digital recorders of various descriptions.[] Since the rise of cheap CD-R discs, and flash memory-based digital audio players, the phenomenon of "home taping" has effectively switched to recording to a Compact Disc or downloading from commercial or music-sharing websites.[]

Because of consumer demand, the cassette has remained influential on design, more than a decade after its decline as a media mainstay. As the Compact Disc grew in popularity, cassette-shaped audio adapters were developed to provide an economical and clear way to obtain CD functionality in vehicles equipped with cassette decks but no CD player. A portable CD player would have its analog line-out connected to the adapter, which in turn fed the signal to the head of the cassette deck. These adapters continue to function with MP3 players and smartphones, and generally are more reliable than the FM transmitters that must be used to adapt CD players and digital audio players to car stereo systems. Digital audio players shaped as cassettes have also become available, which can be inserted into any cassette player and communicate with the head as if they were normal cassettes.[][]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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Sours: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cassette_tape

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Please look below to see which bracket is needed for your fairing: Universal Bracket Fits:Memphis Shades Road Warrior FairingMemphis Shades Gauntlet FairingBurley Brand Touring FairingArlen Ness Fairing Conelys T-Sport FairingConelys Quarter FairingV2H T-Sport Fairing Quarter Fairing BracketHarley Davidson Quarter Fairing Gen 1Krator Quarter FairingMoons MC Quarter Fairing T-Sport Bracket Fits. Since I use player on NUC sound is more silenced and have to volume up receiver. No gimmicks, no subscriptions, just news when you want it. audio_delay. Ozark Spring Roundup. So I bought another Chromecast Audio dongle off Ebay for $50 (the full retail price in ), hooked it up to the Onkyo and I'm somewhat back in business, other than …. 0GHz Plex Media Server Network Storage (Diskless) 4. com for more information!Have a question you. Plex brings together all the media that matters to you. A free Plex account is all you need to enjoy podcasts. Audio fingerprinting helps Plex recognize your music files so it can identify the track and album where your filename may have failed you. I choose TerraMaster F over Synology models. opticians; visit opticians. 10 product ratings. Roku Ultra R UHD HDR Player for NETFLIX PLEX AMAZON PRIME VIDEO DISNEY+. I tried online sources and find that they are about 35 dollars each from Take Five Audio. Enjoy enhanced connectivity with built-in Bluetooth® and dual-band 2. Hi I am looking to purchase a new device for streaming media to the kids TV. Free, Easy, Everywhere. So I bought another Chromecast Audio dongle off Ebay for $50 (the full retail price in ), hooked it up to the Onkyo and I’m somewhat back in business, other than having to manually turn on the Onkyo. Google Chromecast is a streaming media device that allows you to wirelessly stream your favorite entertainment from your phone, tablet or laptop to your TV. Seasonal eBay coupon codes will offer stackable savings on already reduced prices. Though ebay I found them for 15 dollars each, and local sources are closer to the dollar range. YourListen is the world's first social music and audio platform. See full list on support. the upload speeds are awful. Apr 12, · The EVGA XR1 is a great capture card at its current asking price, offering multiple passthrough modes and an intuitive audio mixer. Set this match the speaker configuration of the selected audio device. With your disc collection converted, you can instantly. So I bought another Chromecast Audio dongle off Ebay for $50 (the full retail price in ), hooked it up to the Onkyo and I'm somewhat back in business, other than …. That does though sound rather derogatory towards the …. There's a lot of audio formats out there, but for the sake of keeping this simple, your video contains audio that is mono, stereo, or multichannel (5. The Chromecast Audio is the easiest way to make your dumb HiFi setup a far smarter, network enabled system. 25 Rockford Fosgate Power SpeakersPlex Audio Bluetooth 4. Improve video quality from SD to. All Pioneer AV receivers support HDCP 2. 28/Count) In Stock. But it’s sad that I had to purchase a discontinued device to get everything to work the way I wanted. With thousands of available channels to choose from. ) The included 6. See full list on moscardino. Media software maker Plex has released two new projects today from its internal R&D group, Plex Labs. YourListen is the world's first social music and audio platform. Motorcycle Sound System MP3 bluetooth Audio Radio Stereo Speaker LCD Screen. ★ m4b chapter support. Plex is your home for free TV and movies, giving you access to 80+ live channels and thousands of on-demand titles from around the world. Cable crimped with FP spades for perfect joints: Power Cables: $ 01 or more; 20% off orders $25 or more; 10% off eBay discounts; eBay Daily Deals: Up to 88% off with. Your price for this item is $ NAS->Intel NUC->avr yamaha rx-v via hdmi and after that hdmi to tv. Instantly Thick Cell-U-Plex (2 Pack) 5 Fl Oz (Pack of 2) 4. Top Rated Seller. Your personal collection will look beautiful alongside stellar streaming content. With thousands of available channels to choose from. Plex Audio keeps a running list of the Coupons that they have available on Promo Codes list. The watt amplifier features 2. 5” fairing speakers and 5x7” baglid speakers are frequency-response tuned to overcome wind, exhaust, and road noise up to 75 MPH. So make sure to check if any of the items on the coupon list fit what you are looking for. For videos, the list includes MP4, MKV, HEVC, AVI, MOV, and DIVX. See full list on moscardino. Roku provides the simplest way to stream entertainment to your TV. To get audiobooks added into your library, you will need a few things to get started and depending on your current audiobook library, a few tweaks to get it running flawlessly. You can simply touch the 'Format' icon that is very small and a new format window will pop up, you can choose one of the supported audio formats as the output format. I've been using this piece of software called Plex to stream all my movies and videos all around my house and to all my devices, anytime and virtually anywhe. PLEX SYSTEM. Waterproof Bluetooth Motorcycle Stereo Speakers Audio System USB AUX SD FM Radio. 0 Desktop Hard Drive for $ Mar 14, · Las mejores ofertas para Plex HD/4K están en eBay Compara precios y características de productos nuevos y usados Muchos artículos con envío gratis!. new in photo. Some people have to limit the number of people they share to due to bandwidth constraints. Ozark Empire PRCA Pro Rodeo > Ozark Empire PRCA Pro Rodeo. 1 AAC tracks to 5. Finden Sie Top-Angebote für Pachinko Plex ZA Audio-cd bei eBay. ★ Compatible with all common audiobook file formats (mp3, m4b, FLAC, and more) ★ Sleep timer. This will allow the Apple TV to properly recognize and output the 5. 0 Desktop Hard Drive for $ TERRAMASTER F NAS 2-Bay Cloud Storage Intel Dual Core 2. Motorcycle Sound System MP3 bluetooth Audio Radio Stereo Speaker LCD Screen. 0 out of 5 stars. 25 Rockford Fosgate Power SpeakersPlex Audio Bluetooth 4. This configuration is only honored when not using passthrough. Riitek was founded in , specializing in the development, design, manufacture and marketing of Bluetooth remote control,mini keyboard,mini bluetooth keyboard, which are compatible with PC, Laptop, Raspberry Pi 1 2 3, Mac OS, Linux ,HTPC, IPTV Google , Smart TV Android Box, XBMC, Windows XP Vista 7 8 or Best Offer. Plex Audio keeps a running list of the Coupons that they have available on Promo Codes list. Trending price is based on prices over last 90 days. You can simply touch the 'Format' icon that is very small and a new format window will pop up, you can choose one of the supported audio formats as the output format. Details about Plex Audio Motorcycle Bluetooth Speaker See original listing. 1 is the addition of a subwoofer. Free, Easy, Everywhere. gr, classifieds for stereo and hifi, stereo,preamplifier power amplifier receiver tuner turntable cassette tape recorder rtr reel tape recorder speakers cd player …. 0) is left and right. For videos, the list includes MP4, MKV, HEVC, AVI, MOV, and DIVX. ★ m4b chapter support. Price Match Guarantee. Free returns. Example here : BLACK NOW TV BOX WITH 24 MONTHS PLEX PASS At the moment I just stream from I player and. Set "Album" tag in audio file as the book title Set "Artist" tag in audio file as the book author None of the other tags really matter for searching and matching. the upload speeds are awful. New Listing NVIDIA Shield Pro Digital HD Media Streamer black - Great for Plex Server! Pre-Owned. Plex Media Player (for Home Theater PCs) Download. Your price for this item is $ It depends on the situation. Plex Audio Motorcycle Bluetooth Speaker: Condition: Used. Looking on eBay you can pick up a now tv box with a 2 year plex service with a bunch of …. Get it as soon as Tue, Aug Find many great new & used options and get the best deals for Dell OptiPlex Intel Quad Core i SFF Desktop Computer Windows 10 WiFi at the best online prices …. Everything is pre-wired and ready to plug in and play. See full list on moscardino. Steph is here to help you better understand what goes into one of our systems. Plex can play nearly any media file you throw at it. This item: Let's Talk Health Prosta-Plex Plus. Plex Audio got the secret on using lowest price getting best brands you love. If you have a desktop computer, Nvidia Shield TV Pro, or compatible NAS …. But, there is a workaround. HD14CVO-STAGE2. 0 Desktop Hard Drive for $ At full price, however, there are better options. 2 out of 5 stars. Top Rated Seller. Ozark Empire PRCA Pro Rodeo > Ozark Empire PRCA Pro Rodeo. Get it as soon as Fri, Sep Harley-Davidson Plug-N-Play Bluetooth Radio Electra Glide Police FLHTP Free, Easy, Everywhere. Plex can play nearly any media file you throw at it. Lucky to have you on the team brotha! 📸: @chopskee #plexteam #plexgear #plexaudio #rockfordfosgate #harleydavidson #ignorantlevels. gr, classifieds for stereo and hifi, stereo,preamplifier power amplifier receiver tuner turntable cassette tape recorder rtr reel tape recorder speakers cd player cd recorder md mini disc dat dcc equalizer audio rack audio racks hifi stereo vintage. 0) is left and right. Plex supplies a lot of free media in the form of movies and TV shows. ★ Sync progress across devices via your Plex server. 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Plex brings together all the media that matters to you. Ozark Spring Roundup. Ships from and sold by Let's Talk Health Nutritional Supplements. Usually clocking in with a $ going rate, today’s offers saves you 20% and matches our previous mention for the low. Find many great new & used options and get the best deals for Roku Express HD TV Streaming and Remote with Netflix Plex and Disney+ App New at the best online prices …. the upload speeds are awful. PLEX SYSTEM. eBay item number: Model: S Stream music …. Plex Media Server is the software that works with. I have ripped a bunch of HD-DVDs to a folder stored on my Synology NAS. Loader than the stock fosgate speakers. 0 Receiver Rockford Fosgate Speaker WireStinger Pro Power Wire With Quick Disconnect Our systems fit most Dyna/ Softail/ Sportster/ Road King/ FXR bikes out there but some modifications may be neccesary. Beer Wine Cheese and Chocolate Festival. Pure Audio Blu-ray. Der Haken: Der Anwender bekommt – wie bei dem von Amazon im Januar Plug and play works perfect. Offering an array of audio coding options along with IPConnect technology for data tunneling, the IP Link codecs are suitable for use in Studio-to-Transmitter Links (STLs) as well as audio contribution and distribution networks. Harley-Davidson Plug-N-Play Bluetooth Radio Electra Glide Police FLHTP You can upload, listen, discover and share content without any limits. User rating, 4. This setting helps Plex downmix multi-channel audio intelligently. FREE Shipping by Amazon. So I bought another Chromecast Audio dongle off Ebay for $50 (the full retail price in ), hooked it up to the Onkyo and I’m somewhat back in business, other than having to manually turn on the Onkyo. I have Plex media server on Synology NAS and use different machines to use plex media player. opticians; visit opticians. Cable crimped with FP spades for perfect joints: Power Cables: $ It seems like this is the glaring feature that Plex is missing. Plex is your home for free TV and movies, giving you access to 80+ live channels and thousands of on-demand titles from around the world. Keep using your phone while you. 1 is the addition of a subwoofer. July 15 at PM ·. Loader than the stock fosgate speakers. Top Rated Seller. Get it as soon as Tue, Aug This will allow the Apple TV to properly recognize and output the 5. gr, classifieds for stereo and hifi, stereo,preamplifier power amplifier receiver tuner turntable cassette tape recorder rtr reel tape recorder speakers cd player cd recorder md mini disc dat dcc equalizer audio rack audio racks hifi stereo vintage. Dec 05, · Plex: Werbung statt Abo. Set this match the speaker configuration of the selected audio device. Corndog Kickoff. Lawn & Garden Show. So make sure to check if any of the items on the coupon list fit what you are looking for. Your price for this item is $ 1 is left right, center, and a subwoofer. Plex is your home for free TV and movies, giving you access to 80+ live channels and thousands of on-demand titles from around the world. Now this installation is incredibly easy but be sure you set aside at least a hour free from distractions. Though ebay I found them for 15 dollars each, and local sources are closer to the dollar range. While using plex player over lenovo laptop and roku express sound was good and strong. Model: S PLEASE READ ENTIRE DESCRIPTION BEFORE PLACING YOUR ORDER Whats inside a Plex Audio System: w Rockford Fosgate Power Amplifier5. It depends on the situation. Some people have to limit the number of people they share to due to bandwidth constraints. Get Plex Free. For videos, the list includes MP4, MKV, HEVC, AVI, MOV, and DIVX. The ND is the result of over four decades of audio engineering. Treat Yo Self Without Ruining Your Budget this awesome offer: Plex 50% Off Promo Code and Offers | Up to 50% OFF Off @ Plex. New Listing NVIDIA Shield Pro Digital HD Media Streamer black - Great for Plex Server! Pre-Owned. book an eye test. Motorcycle Sound System MP3 bluetooth Audio Radio Stereo Speaker LCD Screen. Corndog Kickoff. See full list on moscardino. Comes with keyboard remote control, USB charging cable, and it's …. I use ms in both at the …. If you have a desktop computer, Nvidia Shield TV Pro, or compatible NAS …. ) The included 6. 28/Count) In Stock. 1 is the addition of a subwoofer. Audio fingerprinting helps Plex recognize your music files so it can identify the track and album where your filename may have failed you. It's finally possible to enjoy all the media you love in a single app, on any device, no matter where you are. fm , mpr Consumer. Galaxy Audio ASP2 Series Wireless Personal Monitor w/ AST. At DIGIRAW, we help you access your physical media collection through easy to use high-quality digital media files. 5 out of 5 stars Waterproof Bluetooth Motorcycle Stereo Speakers Audio System USB AUX SD FM Radio. 1 AC3 (Dolby Digital) before sending it to the Apple TV. Chromecast built-in speakers stream directly from the cloud, so you get the highest sound quality. Price Match Guarantee. Get real-time status of playbacks, DVR recordings, Sync conversions, and more. This setting helps Plex downmix multi-channel audio intelligently. TERRAMASTER F NAS 2-Bay Cloud Storage Intel Dual Core 2. Trending at C $ Feb 16, · Anyone know a good way to get these cheap. Roku provides the simplest way to stream entertainment to your TV. At full price. Some custom order items such as the Gigacycle Front end, Suspension, Saddlemen, Thunderheader, FAB28, or Plex Audio systems will take time to process, we will notify you of the current lead time. The Intraplex IP Link family of IP audio codecs provides high-end features at an affordable price. Lilliput QG 7 Inch Full HD 12G nits Ultra Brightness On Camera Monitor with HDR/3D LUTs $ Lawn & Garden Show > Lawn & Garden Show. Once the media server is configured, Plex users can stream and download that server content on other devices as well as share their libraries with other people via the new cross-platform Plex app. Roku Ultra R UHD HDR Player for NETFLIX PLEX AMAZON PRIME VIDEO DISNEY+. So I bought another Chromecast Audio dongle off Ebay for $50 (the full retail price in ), hooked it up to the Onkyo and I’m somewhat back in business, other than having to manually turn on the Onkyo. Faster converting speed than other video converters, tested on Windows 10/7; 5. the upload speeds are awful. Harley-Davidson Plug-N-Play Bluetooth Radio Electra Glide Police FLHTP Manual 'match' will use the Author/Artist field if it's present, but you cannot enter it manually. Ignorant Levels Hoodie. It is a great way to save a lot at Plex Audio. Polk Audio - Polk Signature Series S55 Floor Standing Speaker - American HiFi Surround Sound for TV, Music, and Movies - Black. By downloading this software, you confirm that you accept the Terms and Conditions and are at least 13 years old. See full list on moscardino. To get audiobooks added into your library, you will need a few things to get started and depending on your current audiobook library, a few tweaks to get it running flawlessly. Some people have to limit the number of people they share to due to bandwidth constraints. Apr 12, · The EVGA XR1 is a great capture card at its current asking price, offering multiple passthrough modes and an intuitive audio mixer. Plex Audio keeps a running list of the Coupons that they have available on Promo Codes list. Audio fingerprinting helps Plex recognize your music files so it can identify the track and album where your filename may have failed you. Example here : BLACK NOW TV BOX WITH 24 MONTHS PLEX PASS At the moment I just stream from I player and. 01 or more; 20% off orders $25 or more; 10% off eBay discounts; eBay Daily Deals: Up to 88% off with. In terms of audio, Plex supports MP3, M4A, FLAC, and WMA files. At full price, however, there are better options. Plex gives you a consistent experience on every screen — listen to podcasts while getting ready for work, then continue catching up on your phone during your commute. New Listing NVIDIA Shield Pro Digital HD Media Streamer black - Great for Plex Server! Pre-Owned. DEALER AD: Gotham Audio-Sonarquest-Hubbell 4 Plex Power Cord 2 Meter: Power Cables: $ This item: Let's Talk Health Prosta-Plex Plus. I wanted to make a Plex Media Server for p content with the possibility to go RAID5. Stream music …. With thousands of available channels to choose from. Top Rated Seller. Corndog Kickoff. Get Plex Free. It depends on the situation. Free, Easy, Everywhere. from United States. 10 shipping. Synology Video Station on the other hand, because it is a native first-party app, has. DEALER AD: Gotham Audio-Sonarquest-Hubbell 4 Plex Power Cord 2 Meter: Power Cables: $ Trending at C $ A rich audio heritage. Plex can play nearly any media file you throw at it. Be prepared for 4K Ultra HD video. ) The included 6. () product ratings - Harley-Davidson Plug-N-Play Bluetooth Radio Electra Glide Police FLHTP Harley-Davidson Plug-N-Play Bluetooth Radio Electra Glide Police FLHTP …. Plex Dash is a tool created by obsessive Plex Media Server admins for obsessive Plex Media Server admins. () Compare. Ended: May 24, With the highest …. With HDCP 2. Though ebay I found them for 15 dollars each, and local sources are closer to the dollar range. 2K likes · 19 talking about this. This configuration is only honored when not using passthrough. FPS videos, expressed in milliseconds; default set to 0. For videos, the list includes MP4, MKV, HEVC, AVI, MOV, and DIVX. Plex Media Server is the software that works with. or Best Offer. Manual 'match' will use the Author/Artist field if it's present, but you cannot enter it manually. Buy Unbranded TV & Home Audio Accessories and get the best deals at the lowest prices on eBay! Great Savings & Free Delivery / Collection on many items. opticians; visit opticians. Faster converting speed than other video converters, tested on Windows 10/7; 5. Your price for this item is $ new in photo. Aug 28, · The Nest Audio (8/10, WIRED Recommends) is Google's direct Echo competitor, and it fares extremely well. Der Haken: Der Anwender bekommt – wie bei dem von Amazon im Januar At full price, however, there are better options. 0) is left and right. 5 out of 5 stars Seller assumes all responsibility for this listing. Price Match Guarantee. Plex gives you a consistent experience on every screen — listen to podcasts while getting ready for work, then continue catching up on your phone during your commute. It is a great way to save a lot at Plex Audio. Your personal collection will look beautiful alongside stellar streaming content. Sign in with a Plex Pass enabled account to access exclusive preview downloads. HD14CVO-STAGE2. 2 out of 5 stars. However, you may have classics that aren’t available anywhere except on a DVD. 5 out of 5 stars. Now this installation is incredibly easy but be sure you set aside at least a hour free from distractions. CHECK OUT MY NEW PLEX 2. Lilliput QG 7 Inch Full HD 12G nits Ultra Brightness On Camera Monitor with HDR/3D LUTs $ Cable crimped with FP spades for perfect joints: Power Cables: $ Pure Audio Blu-ray / Concept / mShuttle / Pure Audio Recordings / Contact / Visit our online shop to browse all currently available Pure Audio Blu. Ozark Empire PRCA Pro Rodeo. So I bought another Chromecast Audio dongle off Ebay for $50 (the full retail price in ), hooked it up to the Onkyo and I’m somewhat back in business, other than having to manually turn on the Onkyo. Everything is pre-wired and ready to plug in and play. This 4-speaker, watt high performance audio system is designed for select + Harley-Davidson® motorcycles (see compatibility chart. Set this match the speaker configuration of the selected audio device. Handlebar Mount MP3 Music Player Sound Audio Amplifier System Scooter ATV UTV w/AUX in, FM Radio, USB, SD …. Plex Media Server is compatible with a wide variety of audio formats, like AAC, ALAC, FLAC, MP3, etc. Details about Plex Audio Motorcycle Bluetooth Speaker See original listing. Free, Easy, Everywhere. Plex is actually trying to prevent this from happening so that you can get 5. 8 out of 5 stars with reviews. 2 for the ultimate experience in high. Featuring USB 3. I wanted to make a Plex Media Server for p content with the possibility to go RAID5. You can also join the eBay Bucks rewards program to get 1% back on eligible items when you pay with PayPal. Stream music, podcasts, news, and more, all wrapped in a beautiful interface. Plex Media Server is the software that works with. Lilliput QG 7 Inch Full HD 12G nits Ultra Brightness On Camera Monitor with HDR/3D LUTs $ be/XSGBvDqVOjgThis is my honest opinion on the Plex Audio JD Customs/Krator Kit! Rockford Fosgate = 10/10 but. Passthrough Codecs. 3$ off orders $3. The audio plays properly in sync. 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Google Chromecast is a streaming media device that allows you to wirelessly stream your favorite entertainment from your phone, tablet or laptop to your TV. 10 shipping. 0 Receiver Rockford Fosgate Speaker WireStinger Pro Power Wire With Quick Disconnect Our systems fit most Dyna/ Softail/ Sportster/ Road King/ FXR bikes out there but some modifications may be neccesary. Free returns. Upload bandwidth from the server is the important part and for most people in the U. Buy It Now. Jun 04, · Software transcoding is available for the free version of Plex Media Server but is far less efficient and will result in much higher-end Media in 4K and p playback consuming the majority of hardware resources to transcode or will simply not play at all. Plex Music & podcasts bring together the best of all worlds—quality, quantity, personalization, and awesome features—in one unique experience. This setting helps Plex downmix multi-channel audio intelligently. Roku Ultra R UHD HDR Player for NETFLIX PLEX AMAZON PRIME VIDEO DISNEY+. TERRAMASTER F NAS 2-Bay Cloud Storage Intel Dual Core 2. opticians; visit opticians. You probably also …. See full list on support. Get it as soon as Tue, Aug Fits in HD quarter fairing or tsport fairing. Top brands, low prices & free shipping on many items. com for more information!Have a question you. Seller assumes all responsibility for this listing. A free Plex account is all you need to enjoy podcasts. 5 out of 5 stars. It's got a compact, pillow-like shape and great sound that will easily fill small and medium. () product ratings - Harley-Davidson Plug-N-Play Bluetooth Radio Electra Glide Police FLHTP book an eye test. novelty photo gifts. Looking on eBay you can pick up a now tv box with a 2 year plex service with a bunch of on demand content. Plex Dash is a tool created by obsessive Plex Media Server admins for obsessive Plex Media Server admins. I have ripped a bunch of HD-DVDs to a folder stored on my Synology NAS. Passthrough Codecs. I've been using this piece of software called Plex to stream all my movies and videos all around my house and to all my devices, anytime and virtually anywhe. Get it as soon as Fri, Sep Plex Audio Motorcycle Bluetooth Speaker: Condition: Used. Plex Audio Hat. However, you may have classics that aren't available anywhere except on a DVD. Get real-time status of playbacks, DVR recordings, Sync conversions, and more. Your price for this item is $ I tested Plex on multiple devices, including several Windows 10 machines, a Fire TV Stick, and a Google Pixel 3. Top Rated Seller. 1 surround sound. 2 out of 5 stars. Audiobooks on Plex remains one of the most requested but neglected additions for Plex. Faster converting speed than other video converters, tested on Windows 10/7; 5. 01 or more; 20% off orders $25 or more; 10% off eBay discounts; eBay Daily Deals: Up to 88% off with. Featuring USB 3. Details about Plex Audio Motorcycle Bluetooth Speaker See original listing. Polk Audio - Polk Signature Series S55 Floor Standing Speaker - American HiFi Surround Sound for TV, Music, and Movies - Black. Plex supplies a lot of free media in the form of movies and TV shows. One is an updated take on the classic Winamp player it calls Plexamp, and another is a. 2 for the ultimate experience in high. Mono is one channel. No other free streaming service delivers more content to more countries, all without a subscription. I use ms in both at the …. 5 out of 5 stars. Stream music, podcasts, news, and more, all wrapped in a beautiful interface. Audio fingerprinting helps Plex recognize your music files so it can identify the track and album where your filename may have failed you. DEALER AD: Gotham Audio-Sonarquest-Hubbell 4 Plex Power Cord 2 Meter: Power Cables: $ Beer Wine Cheese and Chocolate Festival. Output video & audio to numerous digital formats including many rare formats; Keep regular upgrades (e. Monitor bandwidth and server resources with sexy graphs. Media software maker Plex has released two new projects today from its internal R&D group, Plex Labs. book an eye test. The watt amplifier features 2. Jul 02, · 3. - NVIDIA Shield Pro Digital HD Media Streamer black - Great for Plex Server! $ Looking on eBay you can pick up a now tv box with a 2 year plex service with a bunch of …. Treat Yo Self Without Ruining Your Budget this awesome offer: Plex 50% Off Promo Code and Offers | Up to 50% OFF Off @ Plex. Ozark Spring Roundup. Motorcycle Sound System MP3 bluetooth Audio Radio Stereo Speaker LCD Screen. The Intraplex IP Link family of IP audio codecs provides high-end features at an affordable price. User rating, 4. 1 surround sound. Galaxy Audio ASP2 Series Wireless Personal Monitor w/ AST. 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Used MX10 Pro Smart Android TV BOX 6K for Netflix Prime Video Disney WiFi 64GB in perfect condition. the upload speeds are awful. 2K likes · 19 talking about this. it adds output profile support for the latest Huawei Mate 40/40+, Galaxy S21, Galaxy Z Fold and iPhone 12/12 Pro, etc. HD14CVO-STAGE2. Though ebay I found them for 15 dollars each, and local sources are closer to the dollar range. Top Rated Seller. There's a lot of audio formats out there, but for the sake of keeping this simple, your video contains audio that is mono, stereo, or multichannel (5. 5 out of 5 stars Lilliput QG 7 Inch Full HD 12G nits Ultra Brightness On Camera Monitor with HDR/3D LUTs $ Waterproof Bluetooth Motorcycle Stereo Speakers Audio System USB AUX SD FM Radio. or Best Offer. Output video & audio to numerous digital formats including many rare formats; Keep regular upgrades (e. 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Plex is your home for free TV and movies, giving you access to 80+ live channels and thousands of on-demand titles from around the world. Jul 02, · 3. Monitor bandwidth and server resources with sexy graphs. Plex Audio keeps a running list of the Coupons that they have available on Promo Codes list. ★ m4b chapter support. Find many great new & used options and get the best deals for IPTV Plex 12 Months Subscription at the best online prices at eBay! Free delivery for many products!. I choose TerraMaster F over Synology models. One is an updated take on the classic Winamp player it calls Plexamp, and another is a. It seems like this is the glaring feature that Plex is missing. Lucky to have you on the team brotha! 📸: @chopskee #plexteam #plexgear #plexaudio #rockfordfosgate #harleydavidson #ignorantlevels. () Compare. Details about Plex Audio Motorcycle Bluetooth Speaker See original listing. Features: ★ Sync audiobook progress on device.

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Nakamichi for sale

**Please click here to check out our newly launched SkyFi Audio website with additional items for sale** We're looking to purchase several Nakamichi CR-7A tape / cassette decks. 1 DTS:X Soundbar. $ Nakamichi SR-2A Stasis Stereo Receiver - Works Great, Sounds Great! - $ (Bay View, Milwaukee) I have a really nice Nakamichi SR-2A Stasis stereo receiver for sale here. $ Three hours of music - a full opera, four or more LP's - on a single C90! Half speed performance that rivals that of many decks at full speed - 15Khz bandwidth sufficient for any FM broadcasts and most records. If you find the features and performance slightly difficult to believe, please examine and audition a Nakamichi $ The above referred KH was just sold to me in a private sale on 11/27 Read Book Nakamichi User Guide Nakamichi User Guide We provide a range of services to the book industry internationally, aiding the discovery and purchase, distribution and sales measurement of books. System belonged to my father who passed away. Missing one push button cover and has a some very small scratches, other then those unit is in excellent cosmetic condition and very clean. favorite this post Sep Consumer Electronics; Vintage Electronics; Vintage Audio & Video. 1 Pro, this system has an upgraded soundbar with a more intuitive LED display (you have a 5-digit display instead of an Potential sources can include buying guides for nakamichi bluetooth headphones, rating websites, word-of-mouth testimonials, online forums, and product reviews. $1, Nakamichi MB 2s Manuals. 2. 4-Channel W Soundbar System with Dual 10" Wireless Subwoofers and Dolby Atmos Black at Best Buy. Nakamichi BX Cassette Deck $ (pdx > Estacada clackamas county ) pic hide this posting restore restore this posting. Nakamichi /2 tape deck - $20 (NW) Nakamichi /2 tape deck. Use Hifi Shark to monitor pricing and global availability. Very Rare Nakamichi PA-7 Amplifier that came from a studio. selling for $ cash. Cassette Tape Decks & Tapes. 00 Nakamichi NR Dolby C unit for ZXL ZXL ZXE - SERVICED TESTED $ The BX follows the Nakamichi BX series design philosophy of pursuing the highest performance at the lowest cost. 4 Channel W Dolby Atmos Soundbar with Dual 10" Subwoofers (Wireless) & 4 Rear Surround Effects Speakers. Fully function. Nakamichi NR Dolby C unit for ZXL ZXL ZXE - SERVICED TESTED: € However, their sound is not suited for music or games, and they’re not the best value. vancouver, BC for sale "focal" - craigslist Nakamichi AV-2 Stereo Receiver for parts or repair $80 $ ( richmond ) pic hide Nakamichi BXE. Potential sources can include buying guides for nakamichi bluetooth headphones, rating websites, word-of-mouth testimonials, online forums, and product reviews. Nakamichi deck very nice Canuck Audio Mart CA$ May 22, 00 41% off 41% off previous price Shop Nakamichi 7. ฿13, 23 postage. $ Sold by Pricedrightsales. Like other Nakamichi cassette decks the offers performance associated not too long ago with only top quality open reel tape decks, and from this standpoint it represents a high value, per dollar investment. 00 D7 Factory Kit ( Although the picture below shows a idler tire in the package for the Models above, it is Not used in these models and Not included ) Nakamichi Power Amplifier - Works Perfectly!. input 12ch output ,31bands EQ ดีเอสพี ปรับจูนเสียงขั้. nakamichi for sale | eBay Nakamichi Diagrams, Schematics and Service Manuals - download for free! Find great deals on Class d nakamichi amplifier for sale Car Amplifiers, including discounts on the Boss Audio Systems RD W Mono Block Class D Amplifier + Remote + 1/0 Gauge Am. Nakamichi amp and pre amp Nakamichi and update Nakamichi System One Vintage Nakamichi Power Amplifier Access Free Nakamichi Av Manual Nakamichi Corp. ไมโครโฟน Sennheiser MKE สำหรับติดหัวกล้อง เหมาะสำหรับภาพยนตร์อินดี้ทีวีและสารคดี, Maximal rejection of side noise, Switchable “Low Cut” filter minimizes  Reload this page for updates · Product ID: · Number of Bids (Archived Data) · Current Price:$ Nakamichi Cassette Player - $ (Montrose) Nakamichi Cassette Player. $ Used Nakamichi for sale on + second hand hifi sites & shops. Price Match Guarantee. The pictures looked ok, but the description was “untested”. It works perfectly and sounds amazing. Reverb. he drove a pair of Klipshorns with it. 2. $5. $ $ The updated ZXL sold for US$3,, but Nakamichi also offered lower-end cassette decks under US$ 00 previous price $ 0'' tft screen. Unlike the latter, too, the ZXL saw in a ZXL Limited edition with outerspace gold-plated finish and (some) parts for marginally better specifications. 2 Head Cassette Console. THANKS FOR LOOKING. S75R One Black Nakamichi Casette Deck Original Insert Cover, Used. $ Emporium Hifi. กรุงเทพมหานคร. Its been Professional tested and has never been worked on. Nakamichi Shockwafe 1 / 13 Jul 29, - The Nakamichi , , , and Nakamichi Shockwafe 1 / 13 Access Free Nakamichi Av Manual Nakamichi Corp. Today, clean PA-7s can be found on the used market for $$ UPDATE. Nakamichi Shockwafe Ultra 9. FOR SALE: Fresh out of the restoration shop Nakamichi Dragon & Nakamichi HIGH-COM Ⅱ trade Tandberg * Amazon Data on 1st Nakamichi’s scale of manufacturing made it easy to grab one of Pass’ best designs at a very reasonable price. 00 41% off 41% off previous price Read Book Nakamichi User Guide Nakamichi User Guide We provide a range of services to the book industry internationally, aiding the discovery and purchase, distribution and sales measurement of books. ขึ้น ฿ The above referred KH was just sold to me in a private sale on 11/27 Nakamichi Nakamichi RE 2 Kanal Stereo Enpfänger AudioDoo € Feb 28, HIFI bazar. 3 วันที่ผ่านมา in to the realms of the affordable, while still NAKAMICHI Buy Nakamichi Shockwafe Pro 7. Finished in black. 7 x 8. Nakamichi Cassette Deck - $ (Campus) Up for sale is a classic Nak cassette deck. Come with the vary rare dust cover. sk € Sep Buy Nakamichi Shockwafe Pro 7. Classifieds: FOR SALE - Nakamichi II asking for $ The is yet another example of Nakamichi's philosophy: to challenge the unimaginable; to do only that which only Nakamichi can do. $0. sk € Mar 3, Nakamichi CAR Audio products for sale eBay Ebay. * Based on Amazon's reviews for Best-Selling Dolby Atmos soundbars above $ as of 1st March US Audio Mart. 15 พ. 6lbs. I will include the service receipt. Limited at US$6, the device reproduces sound with exceptional bass, clarity and volume. 1). Info. Nakamichi ZX cassette deck. 95 $ of results for "nakamichi". ฿8, · AUDIO QUART AQ-DSP4. Fully working and beautiful 古董收藏 Vintage collectables. Nakamichi $ 13% Aug 30, 5 out of 5 stars. Canuck Audio Mart. Nakamichi BX cassette deck - working US Audio Mart $ Sep 13, Nakamichi ZXL Manuals And User Guides Cassette Player. Just got this one back from service, all the rubber was replaced including belts, idler wheel and the pinch rollers as well. Here at Emporium HiFi we have over 30 years experience in supplying the best HiFi (high fidelity audio equipment) worldwide. Nakamichi Hifi forsale £ Sep 12, Our exclusive dual subwoofers let you hear and feel the bass. mV / Ohm (1kOhm load) (line out) 1V / 2,2kOhm This item Nakamichi NK22 Soundbar Home Theatre System Sony BDV-E Real 5. 00 Nakamichi Shockwafe Pro 7. 4 Elite with Dolby Atmos, DTS-X, HDR and Dolby Vision support, nakamichi also includes their Spatial Surround Elevation t VINTAGE PREAMP/TUNER NAKAMICHI - Photo Six 2. Brand : Nakamichi Just click on the drop down menu titled (Available for sale), towards the  Nakamichi II. FOR SALE: Nakamichi deck very nice: Cassette Tape Decks & Tapes: $ Nakamichi 2 Head Cassette Deck v switchable fully serviced. Access Free Nakamichi Av Manual Nakamichi Corp. I had it serviced in July this year. Shop Nakamichi Shockwafe 9. S & H: see site. 00 41% off 41% off previous price Every Nakamichi system comes with the same soundbar (except for the original Nakamichi Pro 7. 5mm (ไม่มีไมค์) สี : สีดำ และ สีขาว ราคา: บาท  Nakamichi Bxe Cassette Deck Working With Manual And Other Documents. nakamichi cassette decks for sale nakamichi cassette deck console head hifiengine. add to compare. Find used Nakamichi Rx for sale on Craigslist, Letgo, eBay, OfferUp, Amazon and others. 1 Pro, this system has an upgraded soundbar with a more intuitive LED display (you have a 5-digit display instead of an In today's video we will be unboxing and reviewing the Nakamichi Shockwafe 9. 6GX. All. Play, fast forward and rewind all function great. Nakamichi OMS2 Compact Disk Player - - electronics - by owner - sale NAKAMICHI CASSETTE DECK lovely. 4 Ch W Soundbar w Dolby Atmos, Dolby Vision USED One Black Nakamichi Casette Deck Original Insert Cover, Used. Pre-owned Pre-owned Pre-owned. com FREE DELIVERY possible on eligible purchases One Black Nakamichi Casette Deck Original Insert Cover, Used. Good price for a Nakamichi CR-3a? Nightingales, Cassette, 9, AM  Before buy check wood images in the google what you want to buy, What In the box, mk2 silk matt makore veneer, Made from HQ plywood,Makore silk matt,  For sale Rare Item Nakamichi 2-head Cassete Console Mint Condition Minus Cassete Cover Type: 2-head, single compact cassette deck 10 ส. 4-Channel Configuration, Up to W of Total Peak Power, Bluetooth Audio Streaming, External Wireless Subwoofer, Optical, Digital Coaxial, 1/8", 3x HDMI, HDMI Output with ARC Support, Includes Wall Mount Hardware. $ Images  Used (normal wear), I'm selling my very unique and stylish Nakamichi FM Tuner/Preamplifier, AND it's matching Nakamichi Stereo Cassette deck. FOR SALE TAPE CASSETTE NAKAMICHI II. This cassette recorder was purchased new by me in , and is in excellent condition. Was: AU $1, $ I was worried if it worked. $ (Berthoud Colorado ) pic hide this posting restore restore this One Black Nakamichi Casette Deck Original Insert Cover, Used. The pinch rollers and belts were replaced and the machine was lubricated and aligned, a $ job. 00 NAKAMICHI , , - Superb Sound VG Condition ACV The is yet another example of Nakamichi's philosophy: to challenge the unimaginable; to do only that which only Nakamichi can do. Face plate is near mint. Nakamichi RX Manuals And User Guides Car Stereo. $ 0 x 5. Recently go through and been fully serviced,Check out my tech photos from he’s Instagram Co One Black Nakamichi Casette Deck Original Insert Cover, Used. ” Nakamichi Tri Tracer, Nakamichi II Tri Tracer, Nakamichi ZXL, Nakamichi ZXL Limited, Nakamichi , Nakamichi , Nakamichi , Nakamichi Z, Nakamichi , Nakamichi Z, Nakamichi , Nakamichi Z, Nakamichi , Nakamichi Dual Tracer, Nakamichi , Nakamichi M, Nakamichi , Nakamichi Z, Nakamichi , Nakamichi Z, Nakamichi , Nakamichi II Nakamichi Hifi forsale £ Sep 12, Nakamichi Tapedeck ZXL super schöner Zustand komplett neue High End Elkos $ Fully Serviced. Read Book Nakamichi User Guide Nakamichi User Guide We provide a range of services to the book industry internationally, aiding the discovery and purchase, distribution and sales measurement of books. 00 41% off 41% off previous price Nakamichi 8" Active Subwoofer Box Watts Wedge Shaped Max 4 Ohm NM-NBX20A. -. Employing a special Sendust laminate core record/playback head and a single capstan transport, the BX provides wide, flat frequency responsenout of 20 kHz. 00 41% off 41% off previous price Potential sources can include buying guides for nakamichi bluetooth headphones, rating websites, word-of-mouth testimonials, online forums, and product reviews. 3, 1ch Dolby Digital Blu-ray Home Theatre System Sony HT-RT40 Watt Real 5. 01 . ซื้อ nakamichi dsp ราคาถูก มีให้เลือกหลากหลาย - ส่งฟรี ส่งไว LXJ รุ่น MXD เพาเวอร์มิกเซอร์ ขยายเสียงวัตต์ 6CH BLUETOOTH USB/SD CARD EFFECT 16DSP. Nakamichi II. 1 Sound Bar set is an excellent system for film enthusiasts that offers lots of customizability. Nakamichi ZXL / ZXL / ZXE HUB MOUNTING PLATE WITH Photocell Nakamichi ZX Discrete Head Cassette Deck - Fully Tested - Rare! $ Nakamichi Bluetooth Single DIN Digital Media AM/FM Radio MP3 USB AUX APP Control Player Car Stereo Receiver Remote Control with 2 Pairs (4 Speakers) 6. Vintage Nakamichi II 2 Head Cassette Console Deck (Nice) - Tested! Free Ship. the has a unique wedge-shape design that slopes upward from front to back. This had been sitting in the closet for probably 20 years. No compromises are made in the II. the , along with the others in the model line, were the best cassette decks money could buy. I found it on eBay for a very sensible price. nakamichi classic vintage 2 head stereo cassette tape deck of After plugging it in I was  Nakamichi Cassette Deck This offering is for high definition 2. FOR SALE: Nakamichi tri tracer cassette deck: Cassette Tape Decks  3 วันที่ผ่านมา In the early s Nakamichi's top-of-the-line cassette deck was the ZXL, retailing at US$3,, its price only exceeded by the ZXL  3 วันที่ผ่านมา nakamichi cassette decks for sale. Nakamichi Shockwafe 1 / 13 One Black Nakamichi Casette Deck Original Insert Cover, Used. A built-in Hz test tone is provided, which in conjunction with separate left and right pots for recording level, bias and IM suppression Nakamichi 8" Active Subwoofer Box Watts Wedge Shaped Max 4 Ohm NM-NBX20A. 04£. ** Based on Amazon list price and ratings as of 1st March (Montrose) Nakamichi BX Cassette Player in excellent condition. 00 41% off 41% off previous price The SR System One Rack was developed by Nakamichi Research to house its line of wedge shaped Series components that was a popular design phase in the mid to late 70’s. full contact details and latest stock lists on our website Nakamichi PA PA - Got too lucky to even find this high end amp brand new as it is made in around thus % made in USA including the box & weight 25lbs. 00 41% off 41% off previous price Shop Nakamichi Shockwafe 9. 1. Dolby B and C noise reduction are both included nakamichi nakamichi nakamichi zx nakamichi cd nakamichi nakamichi belt nakamichi belts nakamichi zxl. Nakamichi BX cassette deck Canuck Audio Mart CA$ Sep 6, It works and sounds great. NAKAMICHI II 2 Head Cassette Console Vintage High End % Good Look Nakamichi Two Head Stereo Cassette Console () Description The is yet another example of Nakamichi's philosophy: to challenge the unimaginable; to do only that which only Nakamichi can do. Nakamichi ZXL / ZXL / ZXE HUB MOUNTING PLATE WITH Photocell Nakamichi Nakamichi Nakamichi RE 2 Kanal Stereo Enpfänger AudioDoo € Feb 28, HIFI bazar. The original box, remote, or manual is not includedThe deck does play and sounds, but eats tape sometim * Nakamichi , , , , , II $ au DA: 15 PA: 36 MOZ Rank: 54 The Nakamichi Shockwafe Pro 7. Unlike the latter two, the ZXL kept a shape directly reminiscent from the the original which was with Sony's TCSD the first three-head K7 recorder. Only the deck with cover is being sold as shown. au DA: 15 PA: 36 MOZ Rank: 54 VINTAGE PREAMP/TUNER NAKAMICHI - Photo 00 D7 Factory Kit ( Although the picture below shows a idler tire in the package for the Models above, it is Not used in these models and Not included ) $ ♥ best of [?] Nakamichi CR-7a for sale. ” Nakamichi Hifi forsale £ Sep 12, Include description. £ • Buy Nakamichi Cassette Deck - Fully Serviced. Used Nakamichi Tape recorders for sale on + second hand hifi sites & shops. Click to open and download the image of "LG Soundbars Comprehensive Comparison”. NAKAMICHI | NAMAX Nakamichi II 2-Head Cassette Console - black. 4. sk € Sep One Black Nakamichi Casette Deck Original Insert Cover, Used. For sale is a good condition Nakamichi power it’s excellent condition, it is tested and is in good working condition. a most beautiful & stylish classic vintage nakamichi cassette deck with the very rare dust cover. At $ nobody can find brand new amp & beat the sound at this bargain. 00 41% off 41% off previous price The is yet another example of Nakamichi's philosophy: to challenge the unimaginable; to do only that which only Nakamichi can do. NAKAMICHI NDSA (DSP amplifier). ฿11, favorite this post Oct 4 Nakamichi BX Cassette Deck $ (Estacada clackamas county ) pic hide this posting restore restore this posting. $ NAKAMICHI 2 Head Cassette Console Vintage Hi End Work W/Cover Good Look $ favorite this post Sep 25 Nakamichi 2-head, single compact cassette deck. Category. The SR System One Rack was developed by Nakamichi Research to house its line of wedge shaped Series components that was a popular design phase in the mid to late 70’s. $ For Sale By Owner "nakamichi" for sale near Portland, OR Nakamichi Pro Cassette Deck $ ( multnomah county ) pic hide this posting restore restore this posting. This time marked a peak in the market for cassette recorders, before it lost ground to digital recording media such as CD. I have the original owner's manual and 8-page promotional brochure. Upgrade your home theater with this Nakamichi Shockwafe Elite 7. 6 / 4. 4 x 8. 4 Channel W Soundbar with 8" Wireless Subwoofer, 2 Rear Surround Speakers. The meaning of the brand name and logo. sk NAKAMICHI HIFI bazar. The is a two head deck with a dual capstan transport, Dolby B and all the other basic functions you could need in a two head deck. Our discrete surround designs deliver the most authentic degree surround sound that comes with Dolby Atmos & DTS:X. Fully working cond. 00 41% off 41% off previous price The is fully configurable for either Ferric (EX) or Chrome (SX) tape – Metal tape for cassette use had not been invented and Nakamichi wasn’t a fan of Sony’s new-fangled FerriChrome formulation. Marketing-wise, for Nakamichi, all this was a bit awkward and the final sales refelected that. While other tape deck manufacturers must buy their heads  Manufacturer : Nakamichi Model : II Serial Number : Packaging : N/A Accessories Included : Manual Price When New : Nakamichi NAM จอ 2DIN เครื่องเสียงรถยนต์ บลูทูธ วิทยุติดรถยนต์ จอ 2DIN impedance ≤Ω Speaker impedance Ω BLUETOOTH Communication System  Nakamichi NDS digital sound processor 6ch. $ i did not want to use any cleaner. $ (Oceanside north san diego county ) pic hide this posting restore restore this posting. compare now. 00 41% off 41% off previous price Nakamichi Tapedeck ZXL super schöner Zustand komplett neue High End Elkos $ Nakamichi related items currently for sale Last update on Oct 11, AM CEST $2, In Internet Forum they called it "The Real Amplifier" & it has around high quality transistor. 8lbs. All the hardware is present, sold partially disassembled as shown. Saved by Jessica "Elyza" Arce. 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Perhaps so, but they are, in reality, guaranteed minimum specifications for the Nakamichi Model   Dec 27, · FOR SALE: Nakamichi CR-A2 cassette deck: Cassette Tape Decks Nakamichi Cassette Deck Nakamichi Sep 25, · Based on a number of  1 วันที่ผ่านมา nakamichi cassette decks ebay. mV / Ohm (1kOhm load) (line out) 1V / 2,2kOhm One Black Nakamichi Casette Deck Original Insert Cover, Used. VERY GOOD WORKING AND COSMETIC CONDITION. Results 1 - 35 of 35 Find Nakamichi Cassette Deck in Canada | Visit Kijiji Classifieds to buy Nakamichi 4-channel sound bar system. 00 D7 Factory Kit * Sonab C $ NAKAMICHI ZX Discrete Head Cassette Deck w/ HALF SPEED Excellent Condition. 1″ Android Multi-Media Player Receiver IPS TOUCH SCREEN 2RAM+32GB Sale! For a limited time only get 25% off during this Buy Now, Install Later promotion! Nakamichi 4 Channel Class AB Amplifier W RMS Competition Series Car Audio N4. com. 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Imagine these first liters poured into the previously virgin ass with difficulty making their way inside the belly, barely finding a place for themselves there, somehow settling down now, they begin to move again wildly pressing on everything around, to force a person to voluntarily give himself such pain is practically not possible, but we are not help comes the usual 9-volt battery yes, yes, the same one that we all tried in childhood on the tongue, feeling a burning sensation So if her native is not on the tongue, but on small lips, or even better, one contact on the clitoris and first sprinkle there with a saline solution for better conduction, then the effect of fire, fire devouring everything inside it is provided.

Poor Oxa even had a little bit of wild pain from her butt, and this despite the fact that the balloon on. The tip I inflated was not regretful. And although the discharge was short-lived (we still have time), it made her rise from the floor. Looking at her, I realized that the gag can be removed from stupidity will no longer be.

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They splashed and splashed, swimming in the water, and behaved like perfectly happy and in love people. Inflating themselves, the spouses, as it were, accidentally touched each other's intimate places, laughing merrily. Catching up with Leroux in the water, Roman grabbed her by the hips, pressing her to him, and she, wrapping her arms around his neck and her legs around his waist.

Sank onto the heated process with her pussy.

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Since you are here, it would be dishonest to negotiate behind your back. We speak directly, and the matter concerns you directly. I looked at my father, then looked at the brothers and elders. All were silent.

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God. this is what I've been waiting for so long. what I thought for days and raved in the evenings. You are inside me.



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