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Cold War

1947–1991 tension between the Soviet Union and the United States and their respective allies

This article is about the state of political tension in the 20th century. For the general term, see Cold war (general term). For the current state of political tension, see Second Cold War. For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation).

"Cold warrior" redirects here. For other uses, see Cold warrior (disambiguation).

Cold War
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  NATO and   Warsaw Pact states during the Cold War-era

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Mushroom cloud of the Ivy Mikenuclear test, 1952; one of more than a thousand such tests conducted by the US between 1945 and 1992

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With her brother on her back, a Korean girl trudges by a stalled American M46 Patton tank, at Haengju, South Korea, 1951

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East German construction workers building the Berlin Wall, 1961

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A US Navy aircraft shadowing a Soviet freighter during the Cuban Missile Crisis, 1962

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American astronaut Thomas P. Stafford (right) and Soviet cosmonaut Alexei Leonov (left) shake hands in outer space, 1975

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Soviet frigate Bezzavetny bumping USS Yorktown, 1988

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The fall of the Berlin Wall, 1989

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Tanks at Red Square during the August Coup, 1991

The Cold War was a period of geopolitical tension between the United States and the Soviet Union and their respective allies, the Western Bloc and the Eastern Bloc, which began following World War II. Historians do not fully agree on its starting and ending points, but the period is generally considered to span the 1947 Truman Doctrine (12 March 1947) to the 1991 Dissolution of the Soviet Union (26 December 1991).[1] The term cold war is used because there was no large-scale fighting directly between the two superpowers, but they each supported major regional conflicts known as proxy wars. The conflict was based around the ideological and geopolitical struggle for global influence by these two superpowers, following their temporary alliance and victory against Nazi Germany in 1945.[2] Aside from the nuclear arsenal development and conventional military deployment, the struggle for dominance was expressed via indirect means such as psychological warfare, propaganda campaigns, espionage, far-reaching embargoes, rivalry at sports events and technological competitions such as the Space Race.

The Western Bloc was led by the United States as well as the other First World nations of the Western Bloc that were generally liberal democratic but tied to a network of the authoritarian states, most of which were their former colonies.[A] The Eastern Bloc was led by the Soviet Union and its Communist Party, which had an influence across the Second World. The US government supported right-wing governments and uprisings across the world, while the Soviet government funded communist parties and revolutions around the world. As nearly all the colonial states achieved independence in the period 1945–1960, they became Third World battlefields in the Cold War.

The first phase of the Cold War began shortly after the end of the Second World War in 1945. The United States and its allies created the NATO military alliance in 1949 in the apprehension of a Soviet attack and termed their global policy against Soviet influence containment. The Soviet Union formed the Warsaw Pact in 1955 in response to NATO. Major crises of this phase included the 1948–49 Berlin Blockade, the 1927–1949 Chinese Civil War, the 1950–1953 Korean War, the 1956 Hungarian Revolution, the 1956 Suez Crisis, the Berlin Crisis of 1961 and the 1962 Cuban Missile Crisis. The US and the USSR competed for influence in Latin America, the Middle East, and the decolonizing states of Africa and Asia.

Following the Cuban Missile Crisis, a new phase began that saw the Sino-Soviet split between China and the Soviet Union complicate relations within the Communist sphere, while France, a Western Bloc state, began to demand greater autonomy of action. The USSR invaded Czechoslovakia to suppress the 1968 Prague Spring, while the US experienced internal turmoil from the civil rights movement and opposition to the Vietnam War. In the 1960s–70s, an international peace movement took root among citizens around the world. Movements against nuclear arms testing and for nuclear disarmament took place, with large anti-war protests. By the 1970s, both sides had started making allowances for peace and security, ushering in a period of détente that saw the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks and the US opening relations with the People's Republic of China as a strategic counterweight to the USSR. A number of self-proclaimed Marxist regimes were formed in the second half of the 1970s in the Third World, including Angola, Mozambique, Ethiopia, Cambodia, Afghanistan and Nicaragua.

Détente collapsed at the end of the decade with the beginning of the Soviet–Afghan War in 1979. The early 1980s was another period of elevated tension. The United States increased diplomatic, military, and economic pressures on the Soviet Union, at a time when it was already suffering from economic stagnation. In the mid-1980s, the new Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev introduced the liberalizing reforms of glasnost ("openness", c. 1985) and perestroika ("reorganization", 1987) and ended Soviet involvement in Afghanistan. Pressures for national sovereignty grew stronger in Eastern Europe, and Gorbachev refused to militarily support their governments any longer.

In 1989, the fall of the Iron Curtain after the Pan-European Picnic and a peaceful wave of revolutions (with the exception of Romania and Afghanistan) overthrew almost all communist governments of the Eastern Bloc. The Communist Party of the Soviet Union itself lost control in the Soviet Union and was banned following an abortive coup attempt in August 1991. This in turn led to the formal dissolution of the USSR in December 1991, the declaration of independence of its constituent republics and the collapse of communist governments across much of Africa and Asia. The United States was left as the world's only superpower.

The Cold War and its events have left a significant legacy. It is often referred to in popular culture, especially with themes of espionage and the threat of nuclear warfare.

Origins of the term

Main article: Cold war (general term)

At the end of World War II, English writer George Orwell used cold war, as a general term, in his essay "You and the Atomic Bomb", published 19 October 1945 in the British newspaper Tribune. Contemplating a world living in the shadow of the threat of nuclear warfare, Orwell looked at James Burnham's predictions of a polarized world, writing:

Looking at the world as a whole, the drift for many decades has been not towards anarchy but towards the reimposition of slavery... James Burnham's theory has been much discussed, but few people have yet considered its ideological implications—that is, the kind of world-view, the kind of beliefs, and the social structure that would probably prevail in a state which was at once unconquerable and in a permanent state of "cold war" with its neighbours.

In The Observer of 10 March 1946, Orwell wrote, "after the Moscow conference last December, Russia began to make a 'cold war' on Britain and the British Empire."

The first use of the term to describe the specific post-war geopolitical confrontation between the Soviet Union and the United States came in a speech by Bernard Baruch, an influential advisor to Democratic presidents, on 16 April 1947. The speech, written by a journalist Herbert Bayard Swope, proclaimed, "Let us not be deceived: we are today in the midst of a cold war." Newspaper columnist Walter Lippmann gave the term wide currency with his book The Cold War. When asked in 1947 about the source of the term, Lippmann traced it to a French term from the 1930s, la guerre froide.[B]

Background

Main article: Origins of the Cold War

Russian Revolution

Main articles: Russian Revolution and Allied intervention in the Russian Civil War

While most historians trace the origins of the Cold War to the period immediately following World War II, others argue that it began with the October Revolution in Russia in 1917 when the Bolsheviks took power. In World War I, the British, French and Russian Empires had composed the major Allied Powers from the start, and the US joined them as a self-styled Associated Power in April 1917. The Bolsheviks seized power in Russia in November 1917 and fulfilled their promise to withdraw from WWI, and German armies advanced rapidly across the borderlands. The Allies responded with an economic blockade against all of Russia. In early March 1918, the Soviets followed through on the wave of popular disgust against the war and accepted harsh German peace terms with the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk. In the eyes of some Allies, Russia now was helping Germany to win the war by freeing up a million German soldiers for the Western Front and by

relinquishing much of Russia's food supply, industrial base, fuel supplies, and communications with Western Europe.

According to historian Spencer Tucker, the Allies felt, "The treaty was the ultimate betrayal of the Allied cause and sowed the seeds for the Cold War. With Brest-Litovsk the spectre of German domination in Eastern Europe threatened to become reality, and the Allies now began to think seriously about military intervention," and proceeded to step up their "economic warfare" against the Bolsheviks.Some Bolsheviks saw Russia as only the first step, planning to incite revolutions against capitalism in every western country, but the need for peace with Germany led Soviet leader Vladimir Lenin away from this position.[C]

In 1918 Britain provided money and troops to support the anti-Bolshevik "White" counter-revolutionaries. This policy was spearheaded by Minister of War Winston Churchill, a committed British imperialist and anti-communist.[13] France, Japan and the United States invaded Russia in an attempt to topple the new Soviet government. Despite the economic and military warfare launched against it by Western powers, the Bolshevik government succeeded in defeating all opposition and took full control of Russia, as well as breakaway provinces such as Ukraine, Georgia, Armenia, and Azerbaijan.[14]

Western powers also diplomatically isolated the Soviet government. Vladimir Lenin stated that the Soviet Union was surrounded by a "hostile capitalist encirclement" and he viewed diplomacy as a weapon to keep Soviet enemies divided.[15] He set up an organization to promote sister revolutions worldwide, the Comintern. It failed everywhere; it was crushed when it tried to start revolutions in Germany, Bavaria, and Hungary.[16] The failures led to an inward turn by Moscow.

Britain and other Western powers—except the United States—did business and sometimes recognized the new Soviet Union. By 1933, old fears of Communist threats had faded, and the American business community, as well as newspaper editors, were calling for diplomatic recognition. President Franklin D. Roosevelt used presidential authority to normalize relations in November 1933. However, there was no progress on the Tsarist debts Washington wanted Moscow to repay. Expectations of expanded trade proved unrealistic. Historians Justus D. Doenecke and Mark A. Stoler note that, "Both nations were soon disillusioned by the accord." Roosevelt named William Bullitt as ambassador from 1933 to 1936. Bullitt arrived in Moscow with high hopes for Soviet–American relations, but his view of the Soviet leadership soured on closer inspection. By the end of his tenure, Bullitt was openly hostile to the Soviet government, and he remained an outspoken anti-communist for the rest of his life.

Beginnings of World War II

In the late 1930s, Stalin had worked with Foreign Minister Maxim Litvinov to promote popular fronts with capitalist parties and governments to oppose fascism. The Soviets were embittered when Western governments chose to practice appeasement with Nazi Germany instead. In March 1939 Britain and France—without consulting the USSR—granted Hitler control of much of Czechoslovakia at the Munich Agreement. Facing an aggressive Japan at Soviet borders as well, Stalin changed directions and replaced Litvinov with Vyacheslav Molotov, who negotiated closer relations with Germany.

After signing the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact and German–Soviet Frontier Treaty, the Soviet Union forced the Baltic countries—Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania—to allow it to station Soviet troops in their countries. Finland rejected territorial demands, prompting a Soviet invasion in November 1939. The resulting Winter War ended in March 1940 with Finnish concessions. Britain and France, treating the Soviet attack on Finland as tantamount to its entering the war on the side of the Germans, responded to the Soviet invasion by supporting the USSR's expulsion from the League of Nations.

In June 1940, the Soviet Union forcibly annexed Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania. It also seized the Romanian regions of Bessarabia, Northern Bukovina, and the Hertsa region. But after the German Army invaded the Soviet Union in Operation Barbarossa in June 1941 and declared war on the United States in December 1941, the Soviet Union and the Allied powers worked together to fight Germany. Britain signed a formal alliance, broadened to a military and political alliance in 1942, and the United States made an informal agreement. In wartime, the United States supplied Britain, the Soviet Union and other Allied nations through its Lend-Lease Program. The British Commonwealth and, to a lesser extent, the Soviet Union reciprocated with a smaller Reverse Lend-Lease program.[26][27] However, Stalin remained highly suspicious, and he believed that the British and the Americans had conspired to ensure that the Soviets bore the brunt of the fighting against Germany. According to this view, the Western Allies had deliberately delayed opening a second anti-German front in order to step in at the last minute and shape the peace settlement. Thus, Soviet perceptions of the West left a strong undercurrent of tension and hostility between the Allied powers.

End of World War II (1945–1947)

Wartime conferences regarding post-war Europe

Further information: Tehran Conference, Yalta Conference, and List of Allied World War II conferences

The Allies disagreed about how the European map should look, and how borders would be drawn, following the war. Each side held dissimilar ideas regarding the establishment and maintenance of post-war security. Some scholars contend that all the Western Allies desired a security system in which democratic governments were established as widely as possible, permitting countries to peacefully resolve differences through international organizations. Others note that the Atlantic powers were divided in their vision of the new post-war world. Roosevelt's goals—military victory in both Europe and Asia, the achievement of global American economic supremacy over the British Empire, and the creation of a world peace organization—were more global than Churchill's, which were mainly centered on securing control over the Mediterranean, ensuring the survival of the British Empire, and the independence of Central and Eastern European countries as a buffer between the Soviets and the United Kingdom.

The Soviet Union sought to dominate the internal affairs of countries in its border regions. During the war, Stalin had created special training centers for communists from different countries so that they could set up secret police forces loyal to Moscow as soon as the Red Army took control. Soviet agents took control of the media, especially radio; they quickly harassed and then banned all independent civic institutions, from youth groups to schools, churches and rival political parties.[D] Stalin also sought continued peace with Britain and the United States, hoping to focus on internal reconstruction and economic growth.

In the American view, Stalin seemed a potential ally in accomplishing their goals, whereas in the British approach Stalin appeared as the greatest threat to the fulfillment of their agenda. With the Soviets already occupying most of Central and Eastern Europe, Stalin was at an advantage, and the two western leaders vied for his favors.

The differences between Roosevelt and Churchill led to several separate deals with the Soviets. In October 1944, Churchill traveled to Moscow and proposed the "percentages agreement" to divide Europe into respective spheres of influence, including giving Stalin predominance over Romania, Hungary, and Bulgaria and Churchill carte blanche over Greece. This proposal was accepted by Stalin. At the Yalta Conference of February 1945, Roosevelt signed a separate deal with Stalin regarding Asia and refused to support Churchill on the issues of Poland and Reparations. Roosevelt ultimately approved the percentage agreement, but there was still apparently no firm consensus on the framework for a post-war settlement in Europe.

At the Second Quebec Conference, a high-level military conference held in Quebec City, 12–16 September 1944, Churchill and Roosevelt reached agreement on a number of matters, including a plan for Germany based on Henry Morgenthau Jr.'s original proposal. The memorandum drafted by Churchill provided for "eliminating the warmaking industries in the Ruhr and the Saar ... looking forward to converting Germany into a country primarily agricultural and pastoral in its character." However, it no longer included a plan to partition the country into several independent states.[E] On 10 May 1945, President Truman signed the US occupation directive JCS 1067, which was in effect for over two years and was enthusiastically supported by Stalin. It directed the US forces of occupation to "...take no steps looking toward the economic rehabilitation of Germany".

Some historians have argued that the Cold War began when the US negotiated a separate peace with Nazi SS General Karl Wolff in northern Italy. The Soviet Union was not allowed to participate and the dispute led to heated correspondence between Franklin Roosevelt and Stalin. Wolff, a war criminal, appears to have been guaranteed immunity at the Nuremberg trials by Office of Strategic Services (OSS) commander and future CIA director Allen Dulles when they met in March 1945. Wolff and his forces were being considered to help implement Operation Unthinkable, a secret plan to invade the Soviet Union which Winston Churchill advocated during this period.

In April 1945, President Roosevelt died and was succeeded by Vice President Harry S. Truman, who distrusted Stalin and turned for advice to an elite group of foreign policy intellectuals. Both Churchill and Truman opposed, among other things, the Soviets' decision to prop up the Lublin government, the Soviet-controlled rival to the Polish government-in-exile in London, whose relations with the Soviets had been severed.

Following the Allies' May 1945 victory, the Soviets effectively occupied Central and Eastern Europe, while strong US and Western allied forces remained in Western Europe. In Germany and Austria, France, Britain, the Soviet Union and the United States established zones of occupation and a loose framework for parceled four-power control.

The 1945 Allied conference in San Francisco established the multi-national United Nations (UN) for the maintenance of world peace, but the enforcement capacity of its Security Council was effectively paralyzed by the ability of individual members to exercise veto power. Accordingly, the UN was essentially converted into an inactive forum for exchanging polemical rhetoric, and the Soviets regarded it almost exclusively as a propaganda tribune.

Potsdam Conference and surrender of Japan

Main articles: Potsdam Conference and Surrender of Japan

At the Potsdam Conference, which started in late July after Germany's surrender, serious differences emerged over the future development of Germany and the rest of Central and Eastern Europe. The Soviets pressed their demand made at Yalta, for $20 billion of reparations to be taken from Germany occupation zones. The Americans and British refused to fix a dollar amount for reparations, but they permitted the Soviets to remove some industry from their zones. Moreover, the participants' mounting antipathy and bellicose language served to confirm their suspicions about each other's hostile intentions and to entrench their positions. At this conference Truman informed Stalin that the United States possessed a powerful new weapon.

The US had invited Britain into its atomic bomb project but kept it secret from the Soviet Union. Stalin was aware that the Americans were working on the atomic bomb, and he reacted to the news calmly. One week after the end of the Potsdam Conference, the US bombed Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Shortly after the attacks, Stalin protested to US officials when Truman offered the Soviets little real influence in occupied Japan. Stalin was also outraged by the actual dropping of the bombs, calling them a "superbarbarity" and claiming that "the balance has been destroyed...That cannot be." The Truman administration intended to use its ongoing nuclear weapons program to pressure the Soviet Union in international relations.

Following the war, the United States and the United Kingdom used military forces in Greece and Korea to remove indigenous governments and forces seen as communist. Under the leadership of Lyuh Woon-Hyung, working secretly during the Japanese occupation, committees throughout Korea formed to coordinate the transition to Korean independence. Following the Japanese surrender, on August 28, 1945, these committees formed the temporary national government of Korea, naming it the People's Republic of Korea (PRK) a couple of weeks later.[50][51] On September 8, 1945, the United States government landed forces in Korea and thereafter established the United States Army Military Government in Korea (USAMGK) to govern Korea south of the 38th parallel north. The USAMGK outlawed the PRK government. The military governor Lieutenant-General John R. Hodge later said that "one of our missions was to break down this Communist government."[52][53] Thereafter, starting with President Syngman Rhee, the U.S supported authoritarian South Korean governments, which reigned until the 1980s.[54][55][56]

Beginnings of the Eastern Bloc

Main article: Eastern Bloc

Further information: Post–World War II economic expansion

Post-war territorial changes in Europe and the formation of the Eastern Bloc, the so-called 'Iron Curtain'

During the opening stages of World War II, the Soviet Union laid the foundation for the Eastern Bloc by invading and then annexing several countries as Soviet Socialist Republics, by agreement with Germany in the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact. These included eastern Poland (incorporated into the Byelorussian SSR and the Ukrainian SSR),Latvia (which became the Latvian SSR),Estonia (which became the Estonian SSR),Lithuania (which became the Lithuanian SSR), part of eastern Finland (which became the Karelo-Finnish SSR) and eastern Romania (which became the Moldavian SSR).

Central and Eastern European territories that the Soviet army liberated from Germany were added to the Eastern Bloc, pursuant to the Percentages Agreement between Churchill and Stalin. The Soviet Union converted the territories it occupied into satellite states, such as:

The Soviet-style regimes that arose in the Bloc not only reproduced Soviet command economy, but also adopted the brutal methods employed by Joseph Stalin and the Soviet secret police in order to suppress both real and potential opposition. In Asia, the Red Army had overrun Manchuria in the last month of the war, and it went on to occupy the large swathe of Korean territory located north of the 38th parallel.

As part of consolidating Stalin's control over the Eastern Bloc, the People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs (NKVD), led by Lavrentiy Beria, supervised the establishment of Soviet-style secret police systems in the Bloc that were supposed to crush anti-communist resistance. When the slightest stirrings of independence emerged in the Bloc, Stalin's strategy matched that of dealing with domestic pre-war rivals: they were removed from power, put on trial, imprisoned, and in several instances, executed.

British Prime Minister Winston Churchill was concerned that, given the enormous size of Soviet forces deployed in Europe at the end of the war, and the perception that Soviet leader Joseph Stalin was unreliable, there existed a Soviet threat to Western Europe. After World War II, US officials guided Western European leaders in establishing their own secret security force to prevent subversion in the Western bloc, which evolved into Operation Gladio.

Containment and the Truman Doctrine (1947–1953)

Main articles: Cold War (1947–1953), Containment, and Truman Doctrine

Iron Curtain, Iran, Turkey, and Greece

Further information: X Article § The Long Telegram, Iron Curtain, Iran crisis of 1946, and Restatement of Policy on Germany

In late February 1946, George F. Kennan's "Long Telegram" from Moscow to Washington helped to articulate the US government's increasingly hard line against the Soviets, which would become the basis for US strategy toward the Soviet Union for the duration of the Cold War. The Truman Administration was receptive to the telegram due to broken promises by Stalin concerning Europe and Iran.[citation needed] Following the WWII Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran, the country was occupied by the Red Army in the far north and the British in the south. Iran was used by the United States and British to supply the Soviet Union, and the Allies agreed to withdraw from Iran within six months after the cessation of hostilities. However, when this deadline came, the Soviets remained in Iran under the guise of the People's Republic of Azerbaijan and KurdishRepublic of Mahabad. Shortly thereafter, on 5 March, former British prime minister Winston Churchill delivered his famous "Iron Curtain" speech in Fulton, Missouri. The speech called for an Anglo-American alliance against the Soviets, whom he accused of establishing an "iron curtain" dividing Europe from "Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic".

A week later, on 13 March, Stalin responded vigorously to the speech, saying that Churchill could be compared to Hitler insofar as he advocated the racial superiority of English-speaking nations so that they could satisfy their hunger for world domination, and that such a declaration was "a call for war on the USSR." The Soviet leader also dismissed the accusation that the USSR was exerting increasing control over the countries lying in its sphere. He argued that there was nothing surprising in "the fact that the Soviet Union, anxious for its future safety, [was] trying to see to it that governments loyal in their attitude to the Soviet Union should exist in these countries".

European military alliances

European economic alliances

In September, the Soviet side produced the Novikov telegram, sent by the Soviet ambassador to the US but commissioned and "co-authored" by Vyacheslav Molotov; it portrayed the US as being in the grip of monopoly capitalists who were building up military capability "to prepare the conditions for winning world supremacy in a new war". On 6 September 1946, James F. Byrnes delivered a speech in Germany repudiating the Morgenthau Plan (a proposal to partition and de-industrialize post-war Germany) and warning the Soviets that the US intended to maintain a military presence in Europe indefinitely. As Byrnes admitted a month later, "The nub of our program was to win the German people ... it was a battle between us and Russia over minds ..." In December, the Soviets agreed to withdraw from Iran after persistent US pressure, an early success of containment policy.

By 1947, US president Harry S. Truman was outraged by the perceived resistance of the Soviet Union to American demands in Iran, Turkey, and Greece, as well as Soviet rejection of the Baruch Plan on nuclear weapons. In February 1947, the British government announced that it could no longer afford to finance the Kingdom of Greece in its civil war against Communist-led insurgents. The US government responded to this announcement by adopting a policy of containment, with the goal of stopping the spread of Communism. Truman delivered a speech calling for the allocation of $400 million to intervene in the war and unveiled the Truman Doctrine, which framed the conflict as a contest between free peoples and totalitarian regimes. American policymakers accused the Soviet Union of conspiring against the Greek royalists in an effort to expand Soviet influence even though Stalin had told the Communist Party to cooperate with the British-backed government. (The insurgents were helped by Josip Broz Tito's Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia against Stalin's wishes.)

Enunciation of the Truman Doctrine marked the beginning of a US bipartisan defense and foreign policy consensus between Republicans and Democrats focused on containment and deterrence that weakened during and after the Vietnam War, but ultimately persisted thereafter. Moderate and conservative parties in Europe, as well as social democrats, gave virtually unconditional support to the Western alliance, while European and American Communists, financed by the KGB and involved in its intelligence operations,[89] adhered to Moscow's line, although dissent began to appear after 1956. Other critiques of the consensus policy came from anti-Vietnam War activists, the Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament, and the anti-nuclear movement.

Marshall Plan and Czechoslovak coup d'état

Main articles: Marshall Plan, Western Bloc, and 1948 Czechoslovak coup d'état

Map of Cold War-era Europe and the Near East showing countries that received Marshall Plan aid. The red columns show the relative amount of total aid received per nation.

In early 1947, France, Britain and the United States unsuccessfully attempted to reach an agreement with the Soviet Union for a plan envisioning an economically self-sufficient Germany, including a detailed accounting of the industrial plants, goods and infrastructure already removed by the Soviets. In June 1947, in accordance with the Truman Doctrine, the United States enacted the Marshall Plan, a pledge of economic assistance for all European countries willing to participate, including the Soviet Union. Under the plan, which President Harry S. Truman signed on 3 April 1948, the US government gave to Western European countries over $13 billion (equivalent to $189.39 billion in 2016) to rebuild the economy of Europe. Later, the program led to the creation of the Organisation for European Economic Co-operation.

The plan's aim was to rebuild the democratic and economic systems of Europe and to counter perceived threats to Europe's balance of power, such as communist parties seizing control through revolutions or elections. The plan also stated that European prosperity was contingent upon German economic recovery. One month later, Truman signed the National Security Act of 1947, creating a unified Department of Defense, the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), and the National Security Council (NSC). These would become the main bureaucracies for US defense policy in the Cold War.

Stalin believed that economic integration with the West would allow Eastern Bloc countries to escape Soviet control, and that the US was trying to buy a pro-US re-alignment of Europe. Stalin therefore prevented Eastern Bloc nations from receiving Marshall Plan aid. The Soviet Union's alternative to the Marshall Plan, which was purported to involve Soviet subsidies and trade with central and eastern Europe, became known as the Molotov Plan (later institutionalized in January 1949 as the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance). Stalin was also fearful of a reconstituted Germany; his vision of a post-war Germany did not include the ability to rearm or pose any kind of threat to the Soviet Union.

In early 1948, following reports of strengthening "reactionary elements", Soviet operatives executed a coup d'état in Czechoslovakia, the only Eastern Bloc state that the Soviets had permitted to retain democratic structures. The public brutality of the coup shocked Western powers more than any event up to that point, set in motion a brief scare that war would occur, and swept away the last vestiges of opposition to the Marshall Plan in the United States Congress.

The twin policies of the Truman Doctrine and the Marshall Plan led to billions in economic and military aid for Western Europe, Greece, and Turkey. With the US assistance, the Greek military won its civil war. Under the leadership of Alcide De Gasperi the Italian Christian Democrats defeated the powerful Communist–Socialist alliance in the elections of 1948.

Espionage

Main articles: Cold War espionage, American espionage in the Soviet Union and Russian Federation, and Soviet espionage in the United States

All major powers engaged in espionage, using a great variety of spies, double agents, and new technologies such as the tapping of telephone cables. The most famous and active organizations were the American CIA, the Soviet KGB,[102] and the British MI6. The East German Stasi, unlike the others, was primarily concerned with internal security, but its Main Directorate for Reconnaissance operated espionage activities around the world. The CIA secretly subsidized and promoted anti-communist cultural activities and organizations. The CIA was also involved in European politics, especially in Italy. Espionage took place all over the world, but Berlin was the most important battleground for spying activity.

So much top-secret archival information has been released so that historian Raymond L. Garthoff concludes there probably was parity in the quantity and quality of secret information obtained by each side. However, the Soviets probably had an advantage in terms of HUMINT (espionage) and "sometimes in its reach into high policy circles." In terms of decisive impact, however, he concludes:

We also can now have high confidence in the judgment that there were no successful "moles" at the political decision-making level on either side. Similarly, there is no evidence, on either side, of any major political or military decision that was prematurely discovered through espionage and thwarted by the other side. There also is no evidence of any major political or military decision that was crucially influenced (much less generated) by an agent of the other side.

In addition to usual espionage, the Western agencies paid special attention to debriefing Eastern Bloc defectors.[108][citation not found]

Cominform and the Tito–Stalin Split

Main articles: Cominform and Tito–Stalin Split

In September 1947, the Soviets created Cominform to impose orthodoxy within the international communist movement and tighten political control over Soviet satellites through coordination of communist parties in the Eastern Bloc. Cominform faced an embarrassing setback the following June, when the Tito–Stalin Split obliged its members to expel Yugoslavia, which remained communist but adopted a non-aligned position and began accpting money from the United States.

Besides Berlin, the status of the city of Trieste was at issue. Until the break between Tito and Stalin, the Western powers and the Eastern bloc faced each other uncompromisingly. In addition to capitalism and communism, Italians and Slovenes, monarchists and republicans as well as war winners and losers often faced each other irreconcilably. The neutral buffer state Free Territory of Trieste, founded in 1947 with the United Nations, was split up and dissolved in 1954 and 1975, also because of the détente between the West and Tito.[110][111]

Berlin Blockade and Airlift

Main article: Berlin Blockade

The United States and Britain merged their western German occupation zones into "Bizonia" (1 January 1947, later "Trizonia" with the addition of France's zone, April 1949). As part of the economic rebuilding of Germany, in early 1948, representatives of a number of Western European governments and the United States announced an agreement for a merger of western German areas into a federal governmental system. In addition, in accordance with the Marshall Plan, they began to re-industrialize and rebuild the west German economy, including the introduction of a new Deutsche Mark currency to replace the old Reichsmark currency that the Soviets had debased. The US had secretly decided that a unified and neutral Germany was undesirable, with Walter Bedell Smith telling General Eisenhower "in spite of our announced position, we really do not want nor intend to accept German unification on any terms that the Russians might agree to, even though they seem to meet most of our requirements."

Shortly thereafter, Stalin instituted the Berlin Blockade (24 June 1948 – 12 May 1949), one of the first major crises of the Cold War, preventing food, materials and supplies from arriving in West Berlin. The United States, Britain, France, Canada, Australia, New Zealand and several other countries began the massive "Berlin airlift", supplying West Berlin with food and other provisions.

The Soviets mounted a public relations campaign against the policy change. Once again the East Berlin communists attempted to disrupt the Berlin municipal elections (as they had done in the 1946 elections), which were held on 5 December 1948 and produced a turnout of 86.3% and an overwhelming victory for the non-communist parties. The results effectively divided the city into East and West, the latter comprising US, British and French sectors. 300,000 Berliners demonstrated and urged the international airlift to continue, and US Air Force pilot Gail Halvorsen created "Operation Vittles", which supplied candy to German children. The Airlift was as much a logistical as a political and psychological success for the West; it firmly linked West Berlin to the United States. In May 1949, Stalin backed down and lifted the blockade.

In 1952, Stalin repeatedly proposed a plan to unify East and West Germany under a single government chosen in elections supervised by the United Nations, if the new Germany were to stay out of Western military alliances, but this proposal was turned down by the Western powers. Some sources dispute the sincerity of the proposal.

Beginnings of NATO and Radio Free Europe

Main articles: NATO, Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, and Eastern Bloc media and propaganda

Britain, France, the United States, Canada and other eight western European countries signed the North Atlantic Treaty of April 1949, establishing the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). That August, the first Soviet atomic device was detonated in Semipalatinsk, Kazakh SSR. Following Soviet refusals to participate in a German rebuilding effort set forth by western European countries in 1948, the US, Britain and France spearheaded the establishment of West Germany from the three Western zones of occupation in April 1949. The Soviet Union proclaimed its zone of occupation in Germany the German Democratic Republic that October.

Media in the Eastern Bloc was an organ of the state, completely reliant on and subservient to the communist party. Radio and television organizations were state-owned, while print media was usually owned by political organizations, mostly by the local communist party. Soviet radio broadcasts used Marxist rhetoric to attack capitalism, emphasizing themes of labor exploitation, imperialism and war-mongering.

Along with the broadcasts of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) and the Voice of America to Central and Eastern Europe, a major propaganda effort begun in 1949 was Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, dedicated to bringing about the peaceful demise of the communist system in the Eastern Bloc. Radio Free Europe attempted to achieve these goals by serving as a surrogate home radio station, an alternative to the controlled and party-dominated domestic press. Radio Free Europe was a product of some of the most prominent architects of America's early Cold War strategy, especially those who believed that the Cold War would eventually be fought by political rather than military means, such as George F. Kennan.

American policymakers, including Kennan and John Foster Dulles, acknowledged that the Cold War was in its essence a war of ideas. The United States, acting through the CIA, funded a long list of projects to counter the communist appeal among intellectuals in Europe and the developing world. The CIA also covertly sponsored a domestic propaganda campaign called Crusade for Freedom.

German rearmament

Main article: West German rearmament

The rearmament of West Germany was achieved in the early 1950s. The main promoter was Adenauer, with France the main opponent. Washington had the decisive voice. It was strongly supported by the Pentagon (the US military leadership), and weakly opposed by President Truman; the State Department was ambivalent. The outbreak of the Korean War in June 1950 changed the calculations and Washington now gave full support. That also involved naming Dwight D. Eisenhower in charge of NATO forces, and sending more American troops to West Germany. There was a strong promise that West Germany would not develop nuclear weapons.[133]

Widespread fears of another rise of German militarism necessitated the new military to operate within an alliance framework, under NATO command.[134] In 1955, Washington secured full German membership of NATO. In May 1953, Beria, by then in a government post, had made an unsuccessful proposal to allow the reunification of a neutral Germany to prevent West Germany's incorporation into NATO. The events led to the establishment of the Bundeswehr, the West German military, in 1955.[136][137]

Chinese Civil War, SEATO, and NSC-68

Main articles: NSC 68 and Containment

In 1949, Mao Zedong's People's Liberation Army defeated Chiang Kai-shek's United States-backed Kuomintang (KMT) Nationalist Government in China. The KMT moved to Taiwan. The Kremlin promptly created an alliance with the newly formed People's Republic of China. According to Norwegian historian Odd Arne Westad, the communists won the Civil War because they made fewer military mistakes than Chiang Kai-Shek made, and because in his search for a powerful centralized government, Chiang antagonized too many interest groups in China. Moreover, his party was weakened during the war against Japan. Meanwhile, the communists told different groups, such as the peasants, exactly what they wanted to hear, and they cloaked themselves under the cover of Chinese nationalism.

Confronted with the communist revolution in China and the end of the American atomic monopoly in 1949, the Truman administration quickly moved to escalate and expand its containment doctrine. In NSC 68, a secret 1950 document, the National Security Council instituted a Machiavellian policy while proposing to reinforce pro-Western alliance systems and quadruple spending on defense. Truman, under the influence of advisor Paul Nitze, saw containment as implying complete rollback of Soviet influence in all its forms.

United States officials moved to expand this version of containment into Asia, Africa, and Latin America, in order to counter revolutionary nationalist movements, often led by communist parties financed by the USSR, fighting against the restoration of Europe's colonial empires in South-East Asia and elsewhere. In this way, this US would exercise "preponderant power," oppose neutrality, and establish globalhegemony. In the early 1950s (a period sometimes known as the "Pactomania"), the US formalized a series of alliances with Japan, Australia, New Zealand, Thailand and the Philippines (notably ANZUS in 1951 and SEATO in 1954), thereby guaranteeing the United States a number of long-term military bases.

Korean War

Main articles: Division of Korea, Korean War, and Rollback

One of the more significant examples of the implementation of containment was US intervention in the Korean War. In June 1950, after years of mutual hostilities,[F]Kim Il-sung's North Korean People's ArmyinvadedSouth Korea at the 38th parallel. Stalin had been reluctant to support the invasion[G] but ultimately sent advisers. To Stalin's surprise, the United Nations Security Council Resolution 82 and 83 backed the defense of South Korea, although the Soviets were then boycotting meetings in protest of the fact that Taiwan, not the People's Republic of China, held a permanent seat on the council. A UN force of sixteen countries faced North Korea, although 40 percent of troops were South Korean, and about 50 percent were from the United States.

US Marinesengaged in street fighting during the liberation of Seoul, September 1950

The US initially seemed to follow containment when it first entered the war. This directed the US's action to only push back North Korea across the 38th Parallel and restore South Korea's sovereignty while allowing North Korea's survival as a state. However, the success of the Inchon landing inspired the US/UN forces to pursue a rollback strategy instead and to overthrow communist North Korea, thereby allowing nationwide elections under U.N. auspices. General Douglas MacArthur then advanced across the 38th Parallel into North Korea. The Chinese, fearful of a possible US invasion, sent in a large army and defeated the U.N. forces, pushing them back below the 38th parallel. Truman publicly hinted that he might use his "ace in the hole" of the atomic bomb, but Mao was unmoved. The episode was used to support the wisdom of the containment doctrine as opposed to rollback. The Communists were later pushed to roughly around the original border, with minimal changes. Among other effects, the Korean War galvanised NATO to develop a military structure. Public opinion in countries involved, such as Great Britain, was divided for and against the war.

After the Armistice was approved in July 1953, North Korean leader Kim Il Sung created a highly centralized, totalitarian dictatorship that accorded his family unlimited power while generating a pervasive cult of personality. In the South, the American-backed dictatorSyngman Rhee ran a violently anticommunist and authoritarian regime. While Rhee was overthrown in 1960, South Korea continued to be ruled by a military government of former Japanese collaborators until the re-establishment of a multi-party system in the late 1980s.

Crisis and escalation (1953–1962)

Main article: Cold War (1953–1962)

Khrushchev, Eisenhower and de-Stalinization

NATO and Warsaw Pact troop strengths in Europe in 1959

In 1953, changes in political leadership on both sides shifted the dynamic of the Cold War.Dwight D. Eisenhower was inaugurated president that January. During the last 18 months of the Truman administration, the American defense budget had quadrupled, and Eisenhower moved to reduce military spending by a third while continuing to fight the Cold War effectively.

After the death of Joseph Stalin, Georgy Malenkov initially succeeded him as leader of the Soviet Union only to be quickly removed and replaced by Nikita Khrushchev. On 25 February 1956, Khrushchev shocked delegates to the 20th Congress of the Soviet Communist Party by cataloguing and denouncing Stalin's crimes. As part of a new campaign of de-Stalinization, he declared that the only way to reform and move away from Stalin's policies would be to acknowledge errors made in the past.

On 18 November 1956, while addressing Western dignitaries at a reception in Moscow's Polish embassy, Khrushchev infamously declared, "Whether you like it or not, history is on our side. We will bury you", shocking everyone present.[H] He would later say he had not been referring to nuclear war, but the historically fated victory of communism over capitalism. In 1961, Khrushchev boasted that, even if the Soviet Union was currently behind the West, its housing shortage would disappear within ten years, consumer goods would be made abundant, and the "construction of a communist society" would be completed "in the main" within no more than two decades.

Eisenhower's secretary of state, John Foster Dulles, initiated a "New Look" for the containment strategy, calling for a greater reliance on nuclear weapons against US enemies in wartime. Dulles also enunciated the doctrine of "massive retaliation", threatening a severe US response to any Soviet aggression. Possessing nuclear superiority, for example, allowed Eisenhower to face down Soviet threats to intervene in the Middle East during the 1956 Suez Crisis. US plans for nuclear war in the late 1950s included the "systematic destruction" of 1,200 major urban centers in the Eastern Bloc and China, including Moscow, East Berlin and Beijing, with their civilian populations among the primary targets.[I]

In spite of these threats, there were substantial hopes for detente when an upswing in diplomacy took place in 1959, including a two-week visit by Khrushchev to the US, and plans for a two-power summit for May 1960. The latter was disturbed by the U-2 spy plane scandal, however, in which Eisenhower was caught lying to the world about the intrusion of American surveillance aircraft into Soviet territory.

Warsaw Pact and Hungarian Revolution

Main articles: Warsaw Pact and Hungarian Revolution of 1956

March of protesters in Budapest, on 25 October;

A destroyed Soviet T-34-85 tank in Budapest

While Stalin's death in 1953 slightly relaxed tensions, the situation in Europe remained an uneasy armed truce. The Soviets, who had already created a network of mutual assistance treaties in the Eastern Bloc by 1949, established a formal alliance therein, the Warsaw Pact, in 1955. It stood opposed to NATO.

The Hungarian Revolution of 1956 occurred shortly after Khrushchev arranged the removal of Hungary's Stalinist leader Mátyás Rákosi. In response to a popular uprising,[J] the new regime formally disbanded the secret police, declared its intention to withdraw from the Warsaw Pact and pledged to re-establish free elections. The Soviet Army invaded. Thousands of Hungarians were arrested, imprisoned and deported to the Soviet Union, and approximately 200,000 Hungarians fled Hungary in the chaos. Hungarian leader Imre Nagy and others were executed following secret trials.[K]

From 1957 through 1961, Khrushchev openly and repeatedly threatened the West with nuclear annihilation. He claimed that Soviet missile capabilities were far superior to those of the United States, capable of wiping out any American or European city. According to John Lewis Gaddis, Khrushchev rejected Stalin's "belief in the inevitability of war," however. The new leader declared his ultimate goal was "peaceful coexistence". In Khrushchev's formulation, peace would allow capitalism to collapse on its own, as well as giving the Soviets time to boost their military capabilities, which remained for decades until Gorbachev's later "new thinking" envisioning peaceful coexistence as an end in itself rather than a form of class struggle.

The events in Hungary produced ideological fractures within the communist parties of the world, particularly in Western Europe, with great decline in membership as many in both western and socialist countries felt disillusioned by the brutal Soviet response. The communist parties in the West would never recover from the effect the Hungarian Revolution had on their membership, a fact that was immediately recognized by some, such as the Yugoslavian politician Milovan Đilas who shortly after the revolution was crushed said that "The wound which the Hungarian Revolution inflicted on communism can never be completely healed".

Rapacki Plan; Berlin ultimatum

Further information: Rapacki Plan and Berlin Crisis of 1958–1959

In 1957 Polish foreign minister Adam Rapacki proposed the Rapacki Plan for a nuclear free zone in central Europe. Public opinion tended to be favourable in the West, but it was rejected by leaders of West Germany, Britain, France and the United States. They feared it would leave the powerful conventional armies of the Warsaw Pact dominant over the weaker NATO armies.[173]

During November 1958, Khrushchev made an unsuccessful attempt to turn all of Berlin into an independent, demilitarized "free city". He gave the United States, Great Britain, and France a six-month ultimatum to withdraw their troops from the sectors they still occupied in West Berlin, or he would transfer control of Western access rights to the East Germans. Khrushchev earlier explained to Mao Zedong that "Berlin is the testicles of the West. Every time I want to make the West scream, I squeeze on Berlin." NATO formally rejected the ultimatum in mid-December and Khrushchev withdrew it in return for a Geneva conference on the German question.

American military buildup

Main article: Flexible response

Kennedy's foreign policy was dominated by American confrontations with the Soviet Union, manifested by proxy contests. Like Truman and Eisenhower, Kennedy supported containment to stop the spread of Communism. President Eisenhower's New Look policy had emphasized the use of less expensive nuclear weapons to deter Soviet aggression by threatening massive nuclear attacks on all of the Soviet Union. Nuclear weapons were much cheaper than maintaining a large standing army, so Eisenhower cut conventional forces to save money. Kennedy implemented a new strategy known as flexible response. This strategy relied on conventional arms to achieve limited goals. As part of this policy, Kennedy expanded the United States special operations forces, elite military units that could fight unconventionally in various conflicts. Kennedy hoped that the flexible response strategy would allow the US to counter Soviet influence without resorting to nuclear war.

To support his new strategy, Kennedy ordered a massive increase in defense spending. He sought, and Congress provided, a rapid build-up of the nuclear arsenal to restore the lost superiority over the Soviet Union—he claimed in 1960 that Eisenhower had lost it because of excessive concern with budget deficits. In his inaugural address, Kennedy promised "to bear any burden" in the defense of liberty, and he repeatedly asked for increases in military spending and authorization of new weapons systems. From 1961 to 1964 the number of nuclear weapons increased by 50 percent, as did the number of B-52 bombers to deliver them. The new ICBM force grew from 63 intercontinental ballistic missiles to 424. He authorized 23 new Polaris submarines, each of which carried 16 nuclear missiles. He called on cities to prepare fallout shelters for nuclear war. In contrast to Eisenhower's warning about the perils of the military–industrial complex, Kennedy focused on rearmament.[177][citation not found]

Competition in the Third World

Main articles: Decolonization § After 1945, Wars of national liberation, 1953 Iranian coup d'état, 1954 Guatemalan coup d'état, Congo Crisis, and Partition of Vietnam

Western colonial empiresin Asia and Africa all collapsed in the years after 1945.

Nationalist movements in some countries and regions, notably Guatemala, Indonesia and Indochina, were often allied with communist groups or otherwise perceived to be unfriendly to Western interests. In this context, the United States and the Soviet Union increasingly competed for influence by proxy in the Third World as decolonization gained momentum in the 1950s and early 1960s. Both sides were selling armaments to gain influence. The Kremlin saw continuing territorial losses by imperial powers as presaging the eventual victory of their ideology.

The United States used the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) to undermine neutral or hostile Third World governments and to support allied ones. In 1953, President Eisenhower implemented Operation Ajax, a covert coup operation to overthrow the Iranian prime minister, Mohammad Mosaddegh. The popularly elected Mosaddegh had been a Middle Eastern nemesis of Britain since nationalizing the British-owned Anglo-Iranian Oil Company in 1951. Winston Churchill told the United States that Mosaddegh was "increasingly turning towards Communist influence." The pro-Western shah, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, assumed control as an autocratic monarch. The shah's policies included banning the communist Tudeh Party of Iran, and general suppression of political dissent by SAVAK, the shah's domestic security and intelligence agency.

In Guatemala, a banana republic, the 1954 Guatemalan coup d'état ousted the left-wing President Jacobo Árbenz with material CIA support. The post-Arbenz government—a military junta headed by Carlos Castillo Armas—repealed a progressive land reform law, returned nationalized property belonging to the United Fruit Company, set up a National Committee of Defense Against Communism, and decreed a Preventive Penal Law Against Communism at the request of the United States.

The non-aligned Indonesian government of Sukarno was faced with a major threat to its legitimacy beginning in 1956 when several regional commanders began to demand autonomy from Jakarta. After mediation failed, Sukarno took action to remove the dissident commanders. In February 1958, dissident military commanders in Central Sumatera (Colonel Ahmad Hussein) and North Sulawesi (Colonel Ventje Sumual) declared the Revolutionary Government of the Republic of Indonesia-Permesta Movement aimed at overthrowing the Sukarno regime. They were joined by many civilian politicians from the Masyumi Party, such as Sjafruddin Prawiranegara, who were opposed to the growing influence of the communist Partai Komunis Indonesia party. Due to their anti-communist rhetoric, the rebels received arms, funding, and other covert aid from the CIA until Allen Lawrence Pope, an American pilot, was shot down after a bombing raid on government-held Ambon in April 1958. The central government responded by launching airborne and seaborne military invasions of rebel strongholds Padang and Manado. By the end of 1958, the rebels were militarily defeated, and the last remaining rebel guerilla bands surrendered by August 1961.

In the Republic of the Congo, newly independent from Belgium since June 1960, the Congo Crisis erupted on July 5 leading to the secession of the regions Katanga and South Kasai. CIA-backed President Joseph Kasa-Vubu ordered the dismissal of the democratically elected Prime Minister Patrice Lumumba and the Lumumba cabinet in September over massacres by the armed forces during the invasion of South Kasai and for involving Soviets in the country. Later the CIA-backed Colonel Mobutu Sese Seko quickly mobilized his forces to seize power through a military coup d'état, and worked with Western intelligence agencies to imprison Lumumba and hand him over to Katangan authorities who executed him by firing squad.

In British Guiana, the leftist People's Progressive Party (PPP) candidate Cheddi Jagan won the position of chief minister in a colonially administered election in 1953 but was quickly forced to resign from power after Britain's suspension of the still-dependent nation's constitution. Embarrassed by the landslide electoral victory of Jagan's allegedly Marxist party, the British imprisoned the PPP's leadership and maneuvered the organization into a divisive rupture in 1955, engineering a split between Jagan and his PPP colleagues. Jagan again won the colonial elections in 1957 and 1961, despite Britain's shift to a reconsideration of its view of the left-wing Jagan as a Soviet-style communist at this time. The United States pressured the British to withhold Guyana's independence until an alternative to Jagan could be identified, supported, and brought into office.

Worn down by the communist guerrilla war for Vietnamese independence and handed a watershed defeat by communist Viet Minh rebels at the 1954 Battle of Dien Bien Phu, the French accepted a negotiated abandonment of their colonial stake in Vietnam. In the Geneva Conference, peace accords were signed, leaving Vietnam divided between a pro-Soviet administration in North Vietnam and a pro-Western administration in South Vietnam at the 17th parallel north. Between 1954 and 1961, Eisenhower's United States sent economic aid and military advisers to strengthen South Vietnam's pro-Western regime against communist efforts to destabilize it.

Many emerging nations of Asia, Africa, and Latin America rejected the pressure to choose sides in the East–West competition. In 1955, at the Bandung Conference in Indonesia, dozens of Third World governments resolved to stay out of the Cold War. The consensus reached at Bandung culminated with the creation of the Belgrade-headquartered Non-Aligned Movement in 1961. Meanwhile, Khrushchev broadened Moscow's policy to establish ties with India and other key neutral states. Independence movements in the Third World transformed the post-war order into a more pluralistic world of decolonized African and Middle Eastern nations and of rising nationalism in Asia and Latin America.

Sino-Soviet split

Main article: Sino-Soviet split

A map showing the relations of Marxist–Leninist statesafter the Sino-Soviet split as of 1980:

  The USSR and pro-Soviet socialist states

  China and pro-Chinese socialist states

  Neutral Socialist nations (North Korea and Yugoslavia)

  Non-socialist states

After 1956, the Sino-Soviet alliance began to break down. Mao had defended Stalin when Khrushchev criticized him in 1956, and treated the new Soviet leader as a superficial upstart, accusing him of having lost his revolutionary edge. For his part, Khrushchev, disturbed by Mao's glib attitude toward nuclear war, referred to the Chinese leader as a "lunatic on a throne".

After this, Khrushchev made many desperate attempts to reconstitute the Sino-Soviet alliance, but Mao considered it useless and denied any proposal. The Chinese-Soviet animosity spilled out in an intra-communist propaganda war. Further on, the Soviets focused on a bitter rivalry with Mao's China for leadership of the global communist movement. Historian Lorenz M. Lüthi argues:

The Sino-Soviet split was one of the key events of the Cold War, equal in importance to the construction of the Berlin Wall, the Cuban Missile Crisis, the Second Vietnam War, and Sino-American rapprochement. The split helped to determine the framework of the Second Cold War in general, and influenced the course of the Second Vietnam War in particular.

Space Race

Main article: Space Race

On the nuclear weapons front, the United States and the USSR pursued nuclear rearmament and developed long-range weapons with which they could strike the territory of the other. In August 1957, the Soviets successfully launched the world's first intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM), and in October they launched the first Earth satellite, Sputnik 1. The launch of Sputnik inaugurated the Space Race. This led to the ApolloMoon landings by the United States, which astronaut Frank Borman later described as "just a battle in the Cold War."

Cuban Revolution and the Bay of Pigs Invasion

Main articles: Cuban Revolution and Bay of Pigs Invasion

In Cuba, the 26th of July Movement, led by young revolutionaries Fidel Castro and Che Guevara, seized power in the Cuban Revolution on 1 January 1959, toppling President Fulgencio Batista, whose unpopular regime had been denied arms by the Eisenhower administration.

Diplomatic relations between Cuba and the United States continued for some time after Batista's fall, but President Eisenhower deliberately left the capital to avoid meeting Castro during the latter's trip to Washington, DC in April, leaving Vice President Richard Nixon to conduct the meeting in his place. Cuba began negotiating for arms purchases from the Eastern Bloc in March 1960. In March of that year Eisenhower gave approval to CIA plans and funding to overthrow Castro.[208]

In January 1961, just prior to leaving office, Eisenhower formally severed relations with the Cuban government. That April, the administration of newly elected American President John F. Kennedy mounted the unsuccessful CIA-organized ship-borne invasion of the island at Playa Girón and Playa Larga in Santa Clara Province—a failure that publicly humiliated the United States. Castro responded by publicly embracing Marxism–Leninism, and the Soviet Union pledged to provide further support.[216]

Berlin Crisis of 1961

Main article: Berlin Crisis of 1961

Further information: Berlin Wall and

Sours: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cold_War

Vietnam map outline

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In the fall of 1967, the People’s Army of North Vietnam (PAVN) began to build up its strength in the region, and U. The Vietnam War was fought between communist North Vietnam and the government of Southern Vietnam. . 230. 1955. state of Virginia showing the state capital Richmond, the state contour and flag in the background. It has been designed to save you time and teach in detail all about the different features of the world. St Thomas U S Virgin Islands Geometric City Outline Map Wall Art Decor Printed Or Printable. ) 4. Kashiyama Industries, Ltd. Size. This is a digital instant download. Bookmark File PDF Chapter 22 Section 5 Outline Map The Vietnam War Answer Key 22. The North was supported by communist countries such as the People's Republic of China and the Soviet Union. A - Z. Maps of Vietnam. Upgrade to remove ads. Another way to use these maps is to print them out, have the student write the country and capital on the map, and then check the answers with the computer. Consider the environmental impact and construction costs. Amazon. All administrative regions are identified by name and id in Nov 17, 2015 · Vietnam War Use the information provided on the map to answer the following questions. Outline map of vietnam on blackboard - download this royalty free Stock Illustration in seconds. Asia was the home of some of the world's oldest civilizations. Feb 24, 2021 · The above blank map shows the outline of Vietnam, a country in Southeast Asia. India, Pakistan, Ceylon, Nepal, Political. Vietnam Maps & Facts - World Atlas Vietnam Outline Map. Find out how much larger we now think it is. Historical Maps of Vietnam. Lua Phat: Directed by Dustin Nguyen. About aneki. What three large bodies of water can be found on this map? Gulf of Thailand, Gulf of Tonkin, and South China Sea 2. Aug 02, 2011 · U. All maps are available for free for non-commercial use under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4. Download free with trial. Some maps might come in handy to illustrate your point in your website or blogs, so here is a collection of some free maps available around the web for South East Asia and each of the 10 ASEAN countries: Brunei, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam. Vintage St Thomas U S Virgin Islands Country Map Outline Sterling Silver Pendant. Its resolution is 428x713 and the resolution can be changed at any time according to your needs after downloading. This vibrant destination has emerged from its past at an astonishing pace. 7% in 2021 and 2. The current version will be revised in 2020–21. Feb 24, 2021 · Outline Map. (Don’t draw the whole country; just label where each is. The image is PNG format and has been processed into transparent background by PS tool. Jul 26, 2021 · Gulf of Tonkin incident, complex naval event in the Gulf of Tonkin, off the coast of Vietnam, that was presented to the U. 1960 - American aid to Diem increased. Assigned to protect a small town in Vietnam, Dao arrives to fight against the crime boss; but soon his past catches up with him, threatening to destroy the cherished village. 3, we provided an outline of the derivation of the efficiency of slotted ALOHA. Black and white is usually the best for black toner laser printers and photocopiers. This biography gives detailed information about his childhood, life, works, achievements & timeline. License: Free for Commercial and Personal Use (attribution appreciated!). It reached 3. The marines were evacuated from the embassy at 7:53 AM on April 30, marking the unceremonious end to America’s involvement in the Vietnam War. Find local businesses, view maps and get driving directions in Google Maps. The above map shows the S-shaped long, narrow nation of Vietnam in Southeast Asia. 6KB) December 8, 2020. The outline map includes a list of countries, capital cities, major landforms and bodies of water of Asia. 0267-67-3311 | Fax. 27-2021-08-30T00:00:00+00:01 Subject: Outline Map The Vietnam War Answers Keywords • 1978 Vietnam invades and occupies Cambodia • 1979 Sino-Vietnamese border war • 1985-89 Vietnam removes troops from Cambodia; 1991 formal end • 1988 Beginning of economic and institutional reforms • 1995 U. It has been cleaned and optimized for web use. It borders China in the north, it has a long border with Laos, and it borders Cambodia in the southwest. Available in AI, EPS, PDF, SVG, JPG and PNG file formats. 00. Countries and Principal Cities of Indo-China. The map shows Vietnam, officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, a country in Mainland Southeast Asia. “Depends on the weather,” he said. 34 terms. Vietnam War Outline Webquest: Students will learn about the Vietnam War by completing an internet-based worksheet. The Vietnam War. 7. read. If you want to explore and learn the political and geographical boundaries of Vietnam then you check out our blank map of Vietnam. 1 : 7500000 USSR (Union of Soviet Socialist Republics). 1-1 Nenei, Saku City, Nagano, 385-8511 Google MAP Tel. The award ceremony for the 14th Y-E-S Award in Vietnam took place at Hilton Hanoi Opera Hotel in Hanoi on December 7th, 2019. Vietnam Outline Map Over National Flag Icon Patch. 27-2021-08-30T00:00:00+00:01 Subject: Outline Map The Vietnam War Answers Keywords Myung's and my trip through southeast Asia March-May, 2008 Maps 1946-1950. American soldiers of the 173th airborne are evacuated by helicopter from a Vietcong position 11 December 1965. A student may use the blank map to practice locating these political and physical features. 137 Vietnam Outline Map illustrations on GoGraph. Intended for a general audience, books in the series present a description and analysis of the historical setting and the social, economic, political, and national security systems and institutions of select countries throughout the world. The Battle of Ia Drang was fought November 14-18, 1965, during the Vietnam War (1955-1975) and was the first major engagement between the US Army and the People's Army of Vietnam (PAVN). Address. Begin by downloading the labeled map of Asia to learn the countries, and finish by taking a quiz by downloading the blank map. Download chapter 22 section 5 outline map the vietnam war KYOCERA Document Technology Vietnam Company Limited. Download blank vector map of Vietnam. Iraq Map CIA, 2003 Shown below is a free printable Outline World Map. Asia (Reference Map) 1999 (230K) and pdf format (652K) and larger jpeg (336K) Caspian Region Oil Pipelines (633K) April 2002 [pdf format] Portions of "Oil and Gas Infrastructure in Some countries have such a unique outline that it is easy to spot them, even when they are not on a larger map. and South Vietnamese movements, as well as North Vietnamese supply routes. South Vietnam Map 2. Date of R/D Signed. Key Facts. October 12, 1919. M ng Bangkok Gulf inh Sepone Khe San South China Sea Udon Thani Ratchasima Phanom Rarchathani uang Ngai Qui Nhon Dak TO Tum . Download thousands of royalty free vector maps, world maps and map bundles in Adobe® Illustrator, PowerPoint®, EPS, PDF, PNG and JPG formats. Open Source Mapsopensource provides collection of world maps such as world political map, world outline map, world continent map, world countries map, world oceans and seas map, world rivers map, world lakes map, location maps of the world, projection maps of the world, world globes maps which shows the countries in World globe. Army Map Service, 1965- This series covers parts of Vietnam Regional Maps. That first fence was a line of surplus helicopter landing pads, welded together. Bus maps of Vietnam. Phuket is the biggest island of the country. As observed on the physical map above, Cambodia is primarily a low-lying country with the Central Plain occupying an extensive part of its area. Once you have downloaded StatPlanet, find the folder 'Shapefile_map' and then go to the sub-folder 'map'. Start exploring Vietnam with Lonely Planet’s video guide to getting around, when to go and the top things to do while you're there. 27-2021-08-30T00:00:00+00:01 Subject: Outline Map The Vietnam War Answers Keywords This map of the Saigon Area is not a detailed city map. Outline maps, commonly known also as blank maps, indicate the overall shape of the country or region. The plain features the basin of the Tonle Sap Lake, the Bassac River plain, and the flood-plains of RARE MAP - 6231 iv - NUI BA DEN - TAY NINH - Vietnam War - BLACK VIRGIN MOUNTAIN. Vietnam Outline Map. The United States, France, China Jun 09, 2021 · History maps. - R767J9 from Alamy's library of millions of high resolution stock photos, illustrations and vectors. Size: 612kb. Oct 17, 2018 · San Diego. Asia political map. 1962 - Number of US military Timeline of U. It is projected using the Miller Cylindrical projection and covers the following Jun 24, 2015 - Vietnam free map, free outline map, free blank map, free base map, high resolution GIF, PDF, CDR, AI, SVG, WMF outline The best selection of Royalty Free Black White Vietnam Outline Map Vector Art, Graphics and Stock Illustrations. dbf. A - Z Z - A Newest Views Downloads. Oct 15, 2017 · Below are the image gallery of Usa Political Map Outline, if you like the image or like this post please contribute with us to share this post to your social media or save this post in your device. BJU Hi 101: Chapter 6b. Image 116003894. Airports map of Vietnam. California Road and Recreation Atlas, 11th Edition. Enthralling River Map Of India In Hindi High Resolution Geographical. Others. This section holds a short summary of the history of the area of present-day Vietnam, illustrated with maps, including historical maps of former countries and empires that included present-day Vietnam. Terraces of rice fields in rural Vietnam Fun facts about Vietnam coming soon! About the Vietnamese Flag The Vietnamese Flag is simple yet striking and features a red background with a bright yellow five-point star. A vintage look is achieved using a vignette combined with a scratched texture. 2021 New Year Message from the President (PDF 668. burningcompass. Oct 25, 2012 · Vietnam.  Title: Outline Map The Vietnam War Answers Author: 157. Dates: November 1, 1955 - April 30, 1975. Vietnam Discover the highlights of Vietnam through the country's official tourism website. EPSG:4326. There have been made a choice of the outline world map images, offered on this site, which can be thought as templates or inputs for this map painting tool. For commercial use please consider acquiring an amCharts 4 license. Social challenges include poverty reduction, improving higher education, and allowing freedom of the press. m. This downloadable blank map of Asia makes that task easier. The Hanoi Circuit is a fusion of permanent and street Apr 20, 2017 · Malaysia Map High Resolution. For Vietnam democracy and rights, please check homeagerly. Contains the electronic versions of 80 books previously published in hard copy as part of the Country Studies Series by the Federal Research Division. 4 299 results for world map outline with names in images. The P acific Ocean is bounded by the Asia in the south, Australia in the west and in the East by America. 1:50,000 - Vietnam, Series L7014 (Topographic Maps) U. mapsopensource. This is an outline map of Vietnam without names showing administrative borders. dbf) to map. The flag of the Arab League is two olive branches and 22 chain-links encircling a crescent and the name of the organisation (in Arabic) 2008 outline_map_the_vietnam_war_answer 1/8 Outline Map The Vietnam War Answer Read Online Outline Map The Vietnam War Answer Uncle Josh's Outline Map Book-George W. Vietnam - Single Color VN-EPS-01-0001. This excellent educational tool shows the area from China down to South Vietnam. Land Lots No. -Chinese-made animated movie showed a map supporting Chinese claims to the disputed South China Sea. Congress on August 5, 1964, as two unprovoked attacks by North Vietnamese torpedo boats on the destroyers Maddox and Turner Joy and that led to the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution. Filled and outline version. org: Provides most commonly used abbreviations and initials containing the country name of Vietnam. 2 Southwest Asia It's easy to learn about different countries like Vietnam with our fun fact format. 27-2021-08-30T00:00:00+00:01 Subject: Outline Map The Vietnam War Answers Keywords Vietnam - Vietnam Map Outline Png is a free transparent PNG image carefully selected by PNGkey. Great for exploring areas from afar. 5 x 11 blank Mexcio, Guatemala, Belize, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama, Cuba. The map can be downloaded, printed, and used for educational work. Total Site Area. These images have been selected by Alpha History authors: 1. From . 7 million inhabitants as of 2016, it is the world’s 14th-most-populous country, and the ninth-most-populous Asian country. Director, Representative Executive Officer, President and CEO. Free Colorful USA Map With States. Endorsed on May 30, 2017, and reflecting and building on the priorities identified and expressed in the World Bank Group's 2016 Systematic Country Diagnostic, the Vietnam 2035 Report, and the Government of Vietnam’s 2016-2020 Socio-Economic Outline Maps in . Rivers Of India Maps And Travel Information Download Free Rivers. 1950. Title: Korea & Vietnam Blank Maps. Map 2. The flag of the Arab League is two olive branches and 22 chain-links encircling a crescent and the name of the organisation (in Arabic) 2008 Picture of Map of Vietnam - outline. The empires of Sumer, Babylonia, Assyria, Media, and Persia and the civilizations of Islam flourished in SW Asia, while in the east the ancient civilizations of India, China, and Japan prospered. History Map of the Vietnam War (fought 1954-1975) Illustrating. It has a population of more than 90 million people, making it the 14th most populous country in the world. worldatlas. May 07, 2019 · VIETNAM WAR MAP: IV CORPS (from Newsweek – January 1, 1968) The sixteen southern provinces in and around the Mekong River delta comprise the richest part of all Vietnam, its rice bowl. Outline Map The Vietnam War Answers Outline Map of Vietnam The above blank map shows the outline of Vietnam, a country in Southeast Asia. 95. Listed by popularity. Its nearby countries are Malasia, Indonesia, Vietnam, Taiwan, and China. Only these files are required. The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Vietnam: Vietnam – sovereign country located on the eastern extent of the Indochinese Peninsula in Southeast Asia. Shinjuku Monolith, 3-1 Nishi-Shinjuku 2-chome, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 163-0914, Japan. Download Free Version (PDF format) My safe download promise. Title: Vietnam Outline Map PDF Author: https://www. Since January 2021 these products have been Mar 19, 2020 · Last updated on March 19th, 2020. Vietnam's Flag Quiz/Printout. The unemployment rate in Vietnam remains particularly low. In the early 1900s, nationalist movements emerged in Vietnam, demanding more self-governance and less Aug 06, 2021 · World map - Political Map of the World showing names of all countries with political boundaries. Outline Map Research Activity - Vietnam. The best selection of Royalty Free Vietnam Outline Map Vector Art, Graphics and Stock Illustrations. Korean War Phases (maps) • Animated. 167,731,380 stock photos online. Vietnam Coat Of Arms Patches. Nov 22, 2016 · Vietnam War - Detailed Maps of Cambodia, Laos, Thailand, North and South Vietnam (Jim Henthorn) Vietnam War - Bien Hoa/Long Binh Map (Ray Smith) Vietnam War Maps (U. United States map flag July 4th. Blank maps created using the open source software Tilemill, the other free maps can be obtained from the US Central Intelligence Agency. Some shaded relief is shown on the map. 8 KB). Drawn from the months July 1964 to July1965, these transcripts cover arguably the most Asia: Countries Printables - Map Quiz Game: Asia is the largest of the world regions, stretching from the Middle East to India and over to China and Japan. Vietnam’s domestic airlines asked to ground Pakistani pilots after report says 262 of them hold fraudulent licences. Head Office. 4% in 2022 (IMF, April 2021). A map is valuable for ist ability to convey information. (See map on page 733. This blank map of Vietnam allows you to include whatever information you need to show. Dec 17, 2015 - Vietnam Outline Map providing blank map of the Vietnam for coloring, free download and print out for educational, school or classroom use. Later, nomadic tribes ( Huns, Mongols, and Turks) in N and Crash Course World History is now available on DVD! Visit http://dft. Vietnam - Blue VN-EPS-02-4001. After a North Vietnamese strike against the Special Forces camp at Plei Me, American forces deployed in an effort to destroy the The unemployment rate in Vietnam remains particularly low. Suggestions: mistress. The Vietnam War Section 5 A. COVID-19 Info and Resources. Press Releases. This page creates outline maps of Vietnam. You can select from several presentation options, including the map’s context and legend options. I can see the individual Central Asian countries (Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan) on the download, however only Kazakhstan appears to be marked out on the overall map – the other 4 countries appear to be merged in with Kazakhstan to create a single country bordering Russia (north), China (east), Iran and WGS 84. Aug 02, 2021 · Vietnam Maps of the Asia Pacific AMTI’s interactive maps strive to provide the most complete, accurate, and up-to-date source of geospatial information on maritime Asia. HANOI, Vietnam - Vietnam put its entire southern region in a two-week lockdown starting midnight Sunday, as confirmed COVID-19 cases exceeded 3,000 for the 6 Free Maps Of Vietnam Asean Up. It may be an independent sovereign state or a part of a state as a non-sovereign entity. Tourist and travel maps of Vietnam. |. 4583x4878 / 9,16 Mb Go to Map. The location of Vietnam. Asia time zone map. Bomb Wing Patch In Original Vietnam War Patches. 1941. In the new South, Ngo Dinh Diem, prime minister under Bao Dai, deposed the monarch in 1955 and made himself president. Vietnam maps covers this whole country, which is located in the easternmost part of the Indochina Peninsula in Southeast Asia, flanked by the South China Sea to its east, Cambodia to the southwest, Laos to the northwest and China to the north. Vector Maps: World Map, Australia, UK and USA. Free SVG Maps. sergeant patch. Map. [GeoPDF] This series covers most of northwest Vietnam 1:25,000 - Vietnam, Series L8020 (Picto Maps) U. Physical map of Asia. Map Description. Apr 26, 2021 · Use our map of Vietnam to start planning your trip. 134-135. useful. a. Apr 07, 2021 · Free Printable Labeled and Blank Map of Philippines in PDF. 24, 1968” on pages 733 and 749 of your textbook. Officially known as the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, the country is located at the easternmost country on the Indochinese Nov 11, 2016 · Slide 1, Vietnam editable map of outline labeled with capital and major cities. All the content by www. Rename your files (e. An invaluable snapshot of the Vietnam War, this map shows U. Illustration of Vietnam high resolution map with national flag. 6. 27-2021-08-30T00:00:00+00:01 Subject: Outline Map The Vietnam War Answers Keywords Media in category "Outline history of Vietnam" The following 15 files are in this category, out of 15 total. Vietnam: free maps, free outline maps, free blank maps, free base maps, high resolution GIF, PDF, CDR, AI, SVG, WMF Title: Outline Map The Vietnam War Answers Author: 157. Aug 25, 2018 · Transparent Puerto Rico Map Outline. Plan your trip with advice on Vietnam's best destinations, what to do in Vietnam, visas for Vietnam, where to go in Vietnam, and much more. Vietnam War Commemoration. Powered by EPSG database 9. Too much and is illegible; too little, and the map isn`t very. 2203x1558 / 623 Kb Go to Map. Click on the map to enlarge. Welcome to our SVG map directory! Use the list below to select a map you need. Printable file formats: XL JPEG (6000px wide) and non-layered PDF. Blank maps are often used for geography tests or other classroom or educational purposes

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Outline Map The Vietnam War Answer Key

World War II Teaching Resources Worksheets and Lesson Plans

Teaching map skills can build students geography knowledgeand enhance their understanding of the world in which they live. Middle School Civics An overview of civics what it means to be a good citizen, how democracy works, and why staying informed and engaged matterseven as kids. The Vietnam War which went from 1965 to 1975 involved America and its allies, including Australia, aiming to prevent South Vietnam from an invasion by the communist North Vietnaese. There were many key reasons for Australias involvement in the Vietnam War. The Americans provided valuable support Be sure to support your answers with specific examples. 5. When the Cold War ended we entered the era of globalization. Compare the National Security Strategy of George W. Bush to NSC-68. How did each outline fundamental shifts in U.S. foreign policy? Be sure to support your answers with specific examples. See also Logevall, Choosing War, pp.19899, and for broader suspicion about the attacks among administration personnel, see Edward E.

Why Did Australia Become Involved in the Vietnam War Essay

Mose, Tonkin Gulf and the Escalation of the Vietnam War (Chapel Hill University of North Carolina Press, 1996), pp. 24143. The Vietnam War, was a Cold War-era proxy war that occurred in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia from 1 November 1955 to the fall of Saigon on See the fact file below for more information on the Vietnam War or alternatively, you can download our 23-page Vietnam War worksheet pack to utilise within the classroom or home environment. Start studying The Vietnam War Years-Chapter 22. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. May 29, 2018 The Vietnam War was a military conflict between North Vietnam and U.S.-aided South Vietnam from 19551975. The conflict has deep historical roots, most recently the First Indochina War between the communist North and the French-backed South, and the subsequent splitting of Vietnam into North and South. Apr 27, 2014 - Vietnam War - Webquest with Key - 12 page webquest and teachers key related to the history of the Vietnam War and its implications during the Cold War. It contains 42 questions from a great history website.Your students will learn about the history of the Vietnam War especially as an event in the ov 1956-1975, Vietnam War 1965 United States involvement in South Vietnam replaces that of the French 1968 Tet offensive 1975, United States and all foreign support leave Vietnam.

1. After WWII, the U.S. entered the Cold War and ado

North Vietnam takes control of South Vietnam and establishes a unified country Summary of War Damage to U. S. Battleships, Carriers, Cruisers and Destroyers 17 October, 1941 to 7 December, 1942 USS Birmingham CL62 War Damage Report No. 48 USS Boise CL47 War Damage Report No. 24 Lesson Objectives. Upon completion of the lesson, students will be able to discuss the cause of the Vietnam War. explain the impact the war had on the United States and American society. Exploring America Answer Key The number in parentheses after an answer indicates the page number on which that answer is found in the text. An AV before the page number indicates that the answer is found on that page in American Voices. When an answer is found in one of the twelve suggested literature titles, the name of the book is listed. Unit 1 Feb 19, 2020 The Vietnam War was a military campaign launched by North Vietnam against South Vietnam. The Vietnamese civil war began in 1959. The United States supported the South, while China and Russia supported the North. In 1965, the United States officially entered the war in response to North Vietnams attack on a U.S. military ship. The above blank map shows the outline of Vietnam, a country in Southeast Asia. As can be seen on the map, it is a long and narrow country that is roughly S-shaped. The map can be downloaded, printed, and used for educational work. The above map shows the S-shaped long, narrow nation of Vietnam in Southeast Asia. The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to the Vietnam War. Vietnam War Cold War-era proxy war that occurred in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia from 1 November 1955 to the fall of Saigon on Sep 19, 2017 Vietnam - Opposition to the War. Fearful of losing Vietnam, yet deterred by fear of provoking war with China, Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara came to champion an in-between course of military The war began in 1955 and ended in 1975.

Lyndon B. Johnson and the Vietnam War

This historical period was the era of the Cold War, which was characterized by a lot of tension between the United States and Soviet Union. The Vietnam War took place in Vietnam, and was extended in Laos and Cambodia. The Vietnam War is also known as Vietnam Conflict and Second Indochina War. 1. Give each student two copies of the Vietnam Outline Map without text. 2. Have students use their textbooks or another reference to create a timeline of the important events in the Vietnam War. 3. Have students map the events from their timeline on the outline map. They can use The Vietnam War, 1969-1975 Despite fierce protests at home and abroad, the Vietnam War raged on for years in the 1960s. Learn how the war started, what the domino effect is, and why America didnt get out earlier. VIETNAM WAR MAP IV CORPS (from Newsweek January 1, 1968) The sixteen southern provinces in and around the Mekong River delta comprise the richest part of all Vietnam, its rice bowl.

Vietnam War Facts, Worksheets, History, Start, End

The government claims to control more than 50 percent of the 6.5 million people in the watery region, but in many areas its grip is tenuous. Aug 22, 2017 Some years after the war ended, Lt. Gen. Arthur S. Collins, who had commanded all American troops in the central region of South Vietnam from February 1970 to January 1971, told an Army historian Chapter 22 The Vietnam War Years Section 5 The End of the War and Its Legacy. The Internet contains a wealth of information, but sometimes its a little tricky to find what you need. By using the preselected Web sites provided below you will be able to narrow your search, answer assigned questions, and save precious time. Dec 22, 2019 Vietnam War was the prolonged struggle and lasted more than 10 years, while the Korean War only three. Vietnam War was the most unpopular event in the history of the United States. The chemical weapons were used during the Vietnam War. Two wars had different outcomes the US protected South Korea but lost South Vietnam.

The Vietnam War Years-Chapter 22 Flashcards Quizlet

Click on any Major BaseEvent layer or Star When it opens click on the Image upper left and a viewer will open Blue Star Medal of Honor Recipient Light Blue Star Navy Cross Golden Star The Vietnam War had shattered Johnsons political future. The domestic reaction to the Tet offensive launched by the North Vietnamese in January 1968 created great strain on his presidency. In March, when former Truman advisor Clark Clifford became Johnsons new Secretary of Defense, the President requested a reevaluation of the war. A range of maps and diagrams relevant to the conflict in Vietnam from the 1800s to 1976. These Vietnam War maps have been selected by Alpha History authors.

43 Essential Vietnam War Facts FactRetriever.com

The Vietnam War has roots in Vietnams centuries of domination by imperial and colonial powersfirst China, which ruled ancient Vietnam, and then France, which took control of Vietnam in the late 1800s and established French Indochina. In the early 1900s, nationalist movements emerged in Vietnam, demanding more self-governance and less Kings opposition to the Vietnam War gained national attention on February 25, 1967, when he appeared alongside four anti-war U.S. senators at a daylong symposium in Beverly Hills, California. The Making of the Bombing Missions of the Vietnam War Story Map But until recently, few people outside the U.S. military really knew where all these bombs fell. That changed in late 2016, when the U.S. Department of Defense released its Theater History of Operations (THOR) data , a comprehensive database of U.S. bombing missions from World World War I, said to have been the war to end all wars. It brought an end to four great empires the German, the Ottoman, the Austro-Hungarian, and the Russian. Take these trivia World War I Quiz Questions and Answers to test what you know. Optional Student Notes A Short Summary of the Vietnam War, questions and answer key attached. Vietnam War Timeline strips, attached. Art paper and markers, crayons, or colored pencils. Optional homework Afghanistan haunted by ghost of Vietnam, CNN article attached Essential Questions The key events during the Vietnam War included the Gulf of Tonkin Incident (August 2, 1964), the My Lai massacre March 16, 1968, the anti-war movement, the publication of the Pentagon Papers in 1971 and the most famous battles such as the Tet Offensive (1968), the Easter Offensive, Battle of Hue, Battle of Khe Sanh and the Battle of Hamburger Hill. Battles of The American Revolution facts and overview. Important The American Revolution battles analyzed by PhD students from Stanford, Harvard, Berkeley Jan 30, 2015 Site Map Connect with Us For LIFEs recent book revisiting the events of the Vietnam War, Daniel S. Levy and photographer Joe McNally visited people who had been involved in many sides of Outline Map The Vietnam War Answers This post is a comprehensive timeline of the Cold War, from the origins of the Russian-American conflict following World War Two to the final dissolution of the Soviet Union and the fall of the Berlin Wall at the end of the 20th century.

Vietnam War - Webquest with Key (Google Doc Included)

More about the Vietnam War 1964-1975 Wall Map. ThisVietnam War Map is essential for the detailed study of the war. The Vietnam War map roughly covers the period from the Gulf of Tonkin Incident to the fall of Saigon. The map traces the routes of U.S. troops, South Vietnamese troops, and North Vietnam supply corridors. American troop strength in Vietnam. Assess the nature of the war in Vietnam and the difficulties faced by each side. Evaluate the effects of low morale on American troops and on the home front. The Vietnam War Era (1954-1975) Lesson 2 Americas Role Escalates. William Westmoreland. Napalm. hawks. Doves Start studying The Vietnam War Years-Chapter 22. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools.

Vietnamese History A Chronological Outline Asia for

One party took hold of key positions of power Churchills Iron Curtain speech (Fulton, Missouri, 1946) Communist governments in Poland, Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria, and Czechoslovakia (1948) Fifty years ago in 1967, Martin Luther King, Jr. gave a speech that startled even many of his supporters in the Civil Rights Movement. After more than a decade in the public eye fighting racism Vietnam at 50 1969 When Richard Nixon entered the White House on Jan. 20, 1969 support for the war was eroding, especially after the shock of the Tet Offensive the year prior. From the Vietam W reading, answer the following questions 1. VThat European nation had colonized Vietham? 2. Vhen wes Vietnam divided into nations? Viet-tarn in the Vietnam war. 3. The communist Soviet Union backed The United States backed 4. VThy did the United States back the South Vietnamese? 5. 40 maps that explain World War I by Zack Beauchamp, Timothy B. Lee and Matthew Yglesias on August 4, 2014 One hundred years ago today, on August 4, 1914, German troops began pouring over the Vietnam War Map Activity - Help your high school 9th, 10th, 11th, or 12th grade students become more familiar with the countries surrounding Vietnam, major cities, and major bodies of water. These printable worksheets work great for activities, review, or test prep. You get a map, coloring page, answer key, informational reading, and PowerPoint. Answers-to-historical-outline-map-50-tucanoore 15 Downloaded from www.voucherbadger.co.uk on November 24, 2020 by guest Books Answers To Historical Outline Map 50 Tucanoore This is likewise one of the factors by obtaining the soft documents of this answers to historical outline map 50 tucanoore by online. A multi-choice quiz with answers relating to World War One.

Selected Documents of the Spanish American War

Treaty of Versailles An information and activity sheet comparing the treaty of Versailles with Wilsons 14 points, looking at the effects of the treaty and evaluating a related picture source. Mar 26, 2018 By 1972, the idea that Vietnam posed a threat to Cold War America was so discredited, it sometimes sounded as if Americas only remaining war aim was to get back its P.O.W.s (President Richard View Test Prep - Chapter 30 from HISTORY United Sta at Marlboro High. Chapter 30 Outline The Vietnam War Years Section One Moving Toward Conflict France in Vietnam SE Asia (Vietnam, Laos, & Explore the crucial elements of the Vietnam War in this interactive map. Vietnam Research Deepen your understanding and enhance your knowledge by exploring the nearly 4,000 books, photographs, programs, and other Pritzker Military Museum & Library holdings on the Vietnam War. Section 5 Outline Map The Vietnam War. CHAPTER OUTLINE MAP America Becomes A World Power Pages 1. Book Chapter 17 Section 2 Outline Map Crisis In Europe. Section 15 Outline Map Answer Key Udiehl De. Section 15 Outline Map Answer Key Iakyol De. Section 15 Outline Map Answer Key Addtax De. Chapter 22 Section 5 Outline Map The Vietnam War Answer Key. Jun 26, 2013 personoutline. search. the answer is a clear no. Pathogens for War, That changed in the 1970s when protestors against the Vietnam War linked Suffield to U.S. chemical warfare research and Dec 19, 2019 Vietnam War Officially Ends. The Vietnam War is officially over for the United States. The last U.S. combat soldier leaves Vietnam, but military advisors and some Marines remain. Over 3 million Americans have served in the war, nearly 60,000 are dead, some 150,000 are wounded, and at least 1,000 are missing in action. PDF Outline Map The Vietnam War Answers them. This is an definitely simple means to specifically get lead by on-line. This online broadcast outline map the vietnam war answers can be one of the options to accompany you when having extra time. It will not waste your time. acknowledge me, the e-book will extremely publicize you supplementary Page 29 The Vietnam War and Its Impact. Larry Berman and. Jason Newman. On 2 September 1945 at Hanois Ba Dinh Square, Ho Chi Minh issued the historic Vietnamese proclamation of independence with words borrowed from the American Declaration of Independence We hold the truth that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator certain unalienable rights, that among these are life Click on any Major BaseEvent layer or Star When it opens click on the Image upper left and a viewer will open Blue Star Medal of Honor Recipient Light Blue Star Navy Cross Golden Star The Vietnam War was the longest lasting war in the United States history before the Afghanistan War.

Vietnam War Lesson Plan Study.com

This example of a critical essay explores the history of that violent and divisive event. The United States presence and involvement in the Vietnam War were something that many people felt very strongly about, whether they be American The Vietnam War, 1954-1975 Lesson 1 Going to War in Vietnam. DIRECTIONS Locate each heading below in your textbook. Then use the information under the correct heading and subheading to help you write each answer. I. American Involvement in Vietnam. 1. Who was Ho Chi Minh? 2. Why did the United States aid the French? 3. Newsletter sign up. Take A Sneak Peak At The Movies Coming Out This Week (812) Kevin Hart lands four-picture Netflix deal The Civil War was fought between the Union and Confederacy, but who actually fought on each side? In this lesson, well talk about how the map of America changed across the Civil War. Yet in the second half of the 20th century, the United States had become involved in Korea and Vietnam without an official declaration of war and with only murky legislative authorization. On January 12, 1991, three days before the U.N. deadline, Congress granted President Bush the authority he sought in the most explicit and sweeping war This Vietnam War map activity will help students become more familiar with the countries surrounding Vietnam, major cities, and major bodies of water. Students will label, color, and draw on the map and then answer a few questions.IncludedBlank Vietnam War Map for students to label, color, and answ Outline Map The Vietnam War Answer Key Outline Map The Vietnam War Recognizing the exaggeration ways to acquire this books Outline Map The Vietnam War Answer Key is additionally useful.

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There may be others, but this is a good list to work off. Vietnam Map. Sergio de Alba Is the 2020 National History Teacher of the Year. Outline Map The Vietnam War In The Vietnam War, Mark Atwood Lawrence draws upon the latest research in archives around the world to offer readers a superb account of a key moment in U.S. as well as global history. While focusing on American involvement between 19, Lawrence offers an unprecedentedly complete picture of all sides of the war, notably by examining In this timeline skills game, students show their knowledge of the Vietname War by following context clues to order events and win artifacts. bVX0-zncj9qJ3G1r18rkIpQL02X-Oi6tWViR4g4-vwDVmU50WZA-4bRZMjM2TXmc88PAkJ1g0jIembnEbM CHAPTER 22 SECTION 5 OUTLINE MAP THE VIETNAM WAR ANSWER KEY 197458. Vietnam Map Geography of Vietnam Map of Vietnam - Worldatlas Korean War and Cold War Webquests with Teacher Answer Sheets by 197461. United States Historical Maps - Perry-Castañeda Map Collection 197462. CHAPTER 22 SECTION 5 OUTLINE MAP THE VIETNAM WAR This was the Cold War and when something had an impact on the interests of the United States and the Soviet Union, they were going to get involved and assert their power. The Suez Canal had strategic and economic impact for both the Soviet Union and the United States.

Vietnam War Facts, Definition, Costs and Timeline

The Vietnam War Section 5 A. Review the maps Indochina, 1959 and Tet Offensive, Jan. 30Feb. 24, 1968 on pages 939 and 955 of your textbook. Then, on the accompanying outline map, label the following bodies of water, countries, and cities. Finally, draw a line to mark the DMZ, the Demilitarized Zone that separated North and South Key Takeaways Key Points. The aftermath of World War II was the beginning of an era defined by the decline of the old great powers and the rise of two superpowers the Soviet Union (USSR) and the United States of America (U.S), who soon entered the Cold War.

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Then he lay down on the sofa on his stomach and pulled off his training pants and pants.

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