Strictly medicinal seeds

Strictly medicinal seeds DEFAULT

Qualitative and quantitative estimation of Diosgenin in coded ayurvedic formulation and its ingredient Trigonella foenum-graecum Linn. seeds used in diabetics

Abstract

Background

Trigonella foenum-graecum (Methi) is a leguminous plant and botanically known as Trigonella foenum-graecum Linn, belong to the family Fabaceae. Trigonella foenum-graecum is used for a variety of health conditions, including digestive problems, bronchitis, tuberculosis, fevers, sore throats, wounds, arthritis, abscesses, swollen glands, skin irritations, diabetes, loss of appetite, ulcers, and menopausal symptoms, as well as in the treatment of cancer. Trigonella foenum-graecum seeds mainly contain Diosgenin [(3β,25R)-spirosten3-ol], a plant-derived steroid sapogenin.

Results

The identification and quantification results by HPTLC and HPLC studies of Trigonella foenum-graecum seeds hydrolysed Trigonella foenum-graecum seeds, coded formulation, hydrolysed coded formulation extract with standard Diosgenin biomarker showed a significant highest peak in hydrolysed Trigonella foenum-graecum seeds and hydrolysed coded formulation. The standard Diosgenin is observed in the hydrolysed form of hydrolysed Trigonella foenum-graecum seeds and hydrolysed coded formulation. The literature on Trigonella foenum-graecum confirms its activity as antidiabetic, and the peak of standard biomarker Diosgenin is seen after derivatization with anisaldehyde sulphuric agent, which possesses medicinal phytoconstituents value. Further related to future scientific aspects, more studies on its potent antidiabetic activity and multipurpose action need to be carried out with medicinal composition and its effects on the human body.

Conclusion

This study aims to establish the qualitative and quantitative estimation of standard Diosgenin in reliable with coded ayurvedic formulation and Trigonella foenum-graecum seeds and its activity as antidiabetic by HPTLC and HPLC.

Highlights

  • HPTLC fingerprint profile along with Diosgenin.

  • Quantification of Diosgenin by HPLC.

Background

India was enriched with a variety of herbs, shrubs, trees, and seeds used in the ancient Indian system of medicine and reported to possess beneficial medicinal effects in curing illness. Trigonella foenum-graecum is used in both forms in food and medicine in Asia. Seeds are eaten as sprouts and rich in secondary metabolites, potential sources of drugs, and essential oils of therapeutic importance. Due to their bitter taste, seeds are a good source of resin, protein, fibre, and mucilage. The critical advantages of medicinal plants' therapeutic uses in various ailments are their safety besides being economical, effective, and easy availability [1,2,3]. Our ayurvedic system praised this herb and documented its healing capacity in its ancient texts.

Among the plants known for medicinal value in Indian medicine, the plants of genus Trigonella foenum-graecum Linn belong to the family Fabaceae are vital for their therapeutic potentials. It is extensively cultivated as a semi-arid crop in northern Africa, the Mediterranean, India, and Canada [4]. Trigonella foenum-graecum (Fig. 1) grows as an erect annual with long, slender stems reaching 30–60 cm in height. The plant bears grey-green, tripartite, toothed leaves. White or pale-yellow flowers appear in summer and develop into long, slender, sword-shaped seed pods with a curved, beak-like tip. It has been reported that Trigonella foenum-graecum could be employed in the medicinal, pharmaceutical, and nutraceutical fields [5]. It is used as an aphrodisiac, astringent, demulcent, carminative, stomachic, diuretic, emmenagogue, emollient, expectorant, galactagogue, restorative, and tonic [3]. Trigonella foenum-graecum is used to treat digestive issues, bronchitis, TB, fevers, sore throats, wounds, arthritis, abscesses, swollen glands, skin irritations, diabetes, loss of appetite, ulcers, and menopausal symptoms, as well as cancer. Antidiabetic, antifertility, anticancer, antibacterial, and antiparasitic effects have been described for Trigonella foenum-graecum [3, 6]. An infusion of the leaves is used as a gargle for recurring mouth ulcers in traditional medicine. It is used as an emollient in poultices for boils, cysts, and other skin irritations. It is used to control blood pressure and lower blood sugar levels. Trigonella foenum-graecum has been shown to reduce inflammation, alleviate congestion, and fight infection. It loosens and eliminates excess mucus and phlegm, as well as relieving sinus and lung congestion. The Trigonella foenum-graecum seed is used in Chinese medicine to treat abdominal discomfort, chilblains, cholecystitis, fever, hernia, impotence, hypogastric, nephrosis, and rheumatism [7]. Trigonella foenum-graecum is known to contain alkaloids, flavonoids, salicylate, and nicotinic acid. The chemical composition of Trigonella foenum-graecum (like seeds, husk, and cotyledons) showed that endosperm had the highest saponins ( g/ g) and protein ( g/ g) content [6, 8]. T. foenum-graecum contains 45–60% galactomannans, 20–30% proteins high in lysine tryptophan, 5–10% lipids, pyridine alkaloids, trigonelline (–%), choline (%), carpaine gentianine, flavonoids luteolin, apigenin, quercetin, orientin, isovitexin vitexin, amino as 4-hydroxyisoleucine (%), histidine, arginine lysine, calcium, saponins, glycosides steroidal sapogenins on hydrolysis (yamogenin, Diosgenin, neotigogenin, tigogenin), sitosterol, cholesterol, vitamin A, B1, C, and nicotinic acid [9,10,11]. Trigonella foenum-graecum seeds mainly contain Diosgenin [(3β,25R)-spirosten3-ol], a plant-derived steroid sapogenin [3, 12]. Diosgenin [(3β,25R)-spirosten3-ol] (Fig. 2), a phytosteroid sapogenin, possesses several biological activities, including anticancer, hypolipidemic, anti-inflammatory, and antidiabetic ones. It also plays a beneficial role in the cardiovascular system and reduces bone loss in osteoporosis [13]. Some reported literature quantifies Diosgenin in Trigonella foenum-graecum seeds by chromatographic methods specially HPLC [14,15,16,17,18,19]. In the current study, Diosgenin was selected for qualitative and quantitative estimation in the coded formulation and Trigonella foenum-graecum seeds by HPTLC and HPLC. The aim of the present study is to develop quality control protocols for the coded ayurvedic drug by analysing the reference standard of bioactive compounds present in the formulation and respective ingredient—evaluation of HPTLC fingerprint profiling along with dominant biomarkers and estimation of bioactive markers Diosgenin by HPLC.

Plant material of Trigonellafoenum-graecum Seeds

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Chemical structure of Diosgenin

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Methods

Procurement of samples

CCRAS, New Delhi, supplied coded formulation and Trigonella foenum-graecum seeds.

Reagents and standards

All chemicals and solvents were used analytical grade or HPLC grade and obtained from E-Merck and other renowned companies. The Diosgenin reference standard was procured from Natural remedies, Bengaluru, India.

Extraction procedure

Preparation of Trigonella foenum-graecum seed extract

The dried powdered seed  g of Trigonella foenum-graecum was extracted with  ml of methanol using Soxhlet for 24 h. The extract was evaporated to dryness under reduced pressure. The obtained extract was collected, dried, weighed, and stored separately for further studies. The obtained extracted residue weight of extraction was  g.

Preparation of formulation extract

The powdered  g coded ayurvedic formulation was extracted with  ml of methanol using Soxhlet for 24 h. The extract was evaporated to dryness under reduced pressure. The obtained extract was collected, dried, weighed, and stored separately for further studies. The obtained residue weight of extraction was  g.

Preparation of standard Diosgenin solution

Stock solutions of Diosgenin ( mg /ml) were prepared by dissolving  mg accurately weighed standards in a small amount of HPLC grade methanol and made up the volume to 10 ml in a standard volumetric flask. The stock solution was further diluted as per the requirement for the preparation of working solutions.

Preparation of test solutions

The residues obtained from coded ayurvedic formulation and Trigonella foenum-graecum seeds were accurately weighed 50 mg each and dissolved in methanol using ml volumetric flask, filtered through μ membrane filters, and used for HPTLC fingerprint profiling and identification of reference standard Diosgenin biomarker compound.

Preparation of hydrolysed formulation and Trigonella foenum-graecum test solution

 mg of Trigonella foenum-graecum seeds were weighed and extracted in 5 ml of methanol, and 4 ml of 3 N HCl was added. The above extract was refluxed for 1 h on a water bath. The solution was cooled and adjusted to pH 7 using aqueous ammonia. Make up the solution by using methanol in a ml standard flask. Similarly, Ayush D was hydrolysed by weighing  mg extract in 5 ml of methanol, and 4 ml of 3 N HCl was added refluxed for 1 h on a water bath. The above solution was cooled and adjusted to pH 7 using aqueous ammonia. Made up to the mark in a ml standard flask using methanol, filtered through μ membrane filters, and used for HPTLC fingerprint profiling and identification of reference standard Diosgenin.

Instrumentation

HPTLC analysis

HPTLC analysis was performed on a CAMAG HPTLC system (Muttenz, Switzerland) equipped with an automatic TLC sampler IV, twin trough development chamber, TLC Scanner 3 linked with WINCATS software version [20,21,22,23,24,25,26].

HPTLC fingerprint profile

The 7 µl each of the test solutions of hydrolysed Trigonella foenum-graecum seeds, Trigonella foenum-graecum seeds, hydrolysed coded formulation, coded formulation extract, and 2 µl Diosgenin standard solution was applied on a precoated silica gel 60 F TLC plate (E. Merck) of  mm thickness by using automatic TLC sample applicator (ATS-4). The plate was developed in a suitable solvent system of toluene/ethylacetate (; v/v) in a saturated TLC chamber till the solvent rises to a distance of 8 cm.

The developed plate was dried and observed through CAMAG TLC Visualizer under UV at and  nm, and photographs were documented. Derivatized with anisaldehyde sulphuric acid reagent and heated in a hot air oven at  °C until the colour of the spots appeared and the photograph was documented under white light. Before derivatization, the plate was scanned using CAMAG TLC Scanner with WINCATS software at a wavelength of UV and  nm using deuterium lamps. After derivatization, the plate was scanned at  nm using a tungsten lamp.

HPLC analysis

HPLC instrumentation and chromatographic conditions

HPLC analysis was performed on an Agilent series high-performance liquid chromatographic system equipped with a quaternary pump, manual sample injector using Chemstation HPLC software. All samples and standards were filtered through  μm filters. Separation was achieved on C18 Eclipse, XDB,  mm × 50 mm, 5 μm particle size Agilent Column. The mobile phase has consisted of acetonitrile/water () (v/ v) in an isocratic elution with a flow rate of 2 ml/min, and 10 μl of the test sample (triplicate) was injected into the HPLC system. The column temperature was kept at 32 °C. The detection of analytes at  nm was carried out using Variable Wavelength Detector (VWD) [26, 27].

Solution A: Acetonitrile.

Solution B: Water

Good separations and suitable retention time of Diosgenin were obtained in isocratic elution using the following optimized chromatographic conditions: Column: C18 Eclipse, XDB,  mm  mm, 5 μm particle size. Detection:  nm wavelength. Detector: VWD Detector. Column temperature: 32 °C. Mobile phase: Acetonitrile: Water () (v/v). Flow rate: 2 ml/min. Injection volume: 10 μl. Mode of Operation: Isocratic elution. Retention Time: Min. Run time: 10 min.

Quantification by HPLC

From  mg/ml Diosgenin stock solution was appropriately further diluted five different concentrations as , , ,  mg/ml of working concentrations. Each of the standard solutions was run through the HPLC system and recorded the respective peak areas. The standard calibration curve was established for peak area Vs. The concentration of Diosgenin was applied.

A 10 μl test solution of coded ayurvedic formulation, Trigonella foenum-graecum seeds, hydrolysed Trigonella foenum-graecum, and hydrolysed coded ayurvedic formulation extracts was injected in triplicate to HPLC system. Recorded the chromatogram and determined the area of the peak of the test solution corresponding to that of Diosgenin as described above from the calibration curve. The amount of Diosgenin present in the residues of coded ayurvedic formulation and Trigonella foenum-graecum seeds extract was calculated.

Results

HPTLC chromatogram gives a clear picture of standard biomarker whether it is present in ayurvedic formulations and their ingredients. RF values were calculated, and photograph documentation is recorded in Fig. 3 and Table 1. The fingerprint profile data were recorded by WIN CATS software. Details of HPTLC fingerprint profiling are given in Figs. 4, 5 and 6.

HPTLC fingerprint profiling of Trigonellafoenum-graecum, coded ayurvedic formulation and Diosgenin reference standard

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HPTLC fingerprint profiles of Trigonellafoenum-graecum seeds extract, coded ayurvedic formulation extract and Diosgenin reference standard at UV  nm

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HPTLC fingerprint profiles of Trigonellafoenum-graecum seeds extract, coded ayurvedic formulation extract and Diosgenin reference standard at UV  nm

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HPTLC Fingerprint profiles of Trigonellafoenum-graecum seeds extract, coded ayurvedic formulation extract, and Diosgenin reference standard at  nm

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Quantification by HPLC

Calibration curve

A linear regression analysis has an equation of the form y = mx + b. The standard calibration curve was established for peak area Vs concentration of Diosgenin applied is shown in Fig. 7. Diosgenin at exp. RT: Min, Detector: VWD, Wavelength:  nm, Correlation: , Residual Std. Dev.: Formula: y = mx + b; m: ; b: x: Amount, y: Area.

Calibration curve of Diosgenin peak area Vs concentration of Diosgenin

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Quantitative analysis

Recorded the chromatogram and determined the area of the peak of the test solution corresponding to that of Diosgenin as described above from the calibration curve given in Fig. 8. The amount of Diosgenin present in the residues of coded ayurvedic formulation and Trigonella foenum-graecum seeds extract was calculated and tabulated in Table 2.

HPLC chromatogram of Diosgenin biomarker compound in coded formulation tablet and Trigonellafoenum-graecum seeds

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HPLC chromatogram of standard Diosgenin and calibration curve, Ayush D tab, and Trigonella foenum-graecum seeds are given in Figs. 7 and 8.

Discussion

In the current study, qualitative Diosgenin identification was carried out using the HPTLC method, and quantitative estimation of specific biologically active Diosgenin compound was conducted in the ayurvedic coded formulation and its ingredient Trigonella foenum-graecum seed using the HPLC method [14, 15]. The HPTLC fingerprinting method is an accurate, simple, and specific method for quantifiable bioactive markers [20, 21]. HPTLC chromatogram gives a clear picture of standard biomarker whether it is present in ayurvedic formulations and their ingredients.

The HPTLC study evaluated that [11], a band in wavelength  nm (Green, RF ) corresponding to Diosgenin is visible in both standard and test solution tracks of Trigonella foenum-graecum seeds and coded ayurvedic formulation extract.

Estimated standard Diosgenin content in coded ayurvedic formulation and Trigonella foenum-graecum seeds extracts was performed using the HPLC method. All the samples showed characteristic peaks of Diosgenin at the same retention time as that of standard Diosgenin.

The results obtained from HPLC analysis show that the Trigonella foenum-graecum seed, hydrolysed Trigonella foenum-graecum seeds, coded ayurvedic formulation, and hydrolysed coded ayurvedic formulation extracts contain %, %, % and % Diosgenin biomarker compound, respectively.

All the samples showed characteristic peaks of Diosgenin at the same retention time as that of standard Diosgenin. Retention time is  min detected at  nm. The results of HPLC showed that standard Diosgenin are present in Trigonella foenum-graecum seeds are  mg/ml, hydrolysed Trigonella foenum-graecum  mg/ml, Ayush D ( mg/ml) hydrolysed coded ayurvedic formulation ( mg/ml). The amount of standard Diosgenin is tabulated in Table 2.

Conclusions

Traditional medicine plays a vital role in the healing of many ailments. Interest in herbal resources is growing day by day due to their efficacy and lesser side effects. Trigonella foenum-graecum, a leguminous plant, is botanically known as Trigonella foenum-graecum Linn, belong to the family Fabaceae. Trigonella foenum-graecum is used for various health conditions, including digestive problems, bronchitis, tuberculosis, fevers, sore throats, wounds, arthritis, abscesses, swollen glands, skin irritations, diabetes and loss of appetite, ulcers, and menopausal symptoms as well as in the treatment of cancer. Proper identification and quality control of the drug provide standard HPTLC and HPLC profiles with the selected solvent system. Major phytoconstituents are reported to be extracted in methanol and visualized under  nm and  nm. They were derivatized with the anisaldehyde sulphuric acid reagent. The Rf value of Diosgenin observed after derivatization is The HPTLC profile can also be used to refer the proper identification/authentication of the drug. HPLC chromatogram concluded that all the samples showed characteristic peaks of Diosgenin at the same retention time as that of standard Diosgenin. The present study concludes that hydrolysed Trigonella foenum-graecum seeds and coded ayurvedic formulation give better results than the unhydrolysed form of the same with standard Diosgenin. Further studies are required to elucidate the mechanism of various phytoconstituents with the human body in treating illness.

Availability of data and materials

All data and material are available upon request.

Abbreviations

High-performance liquid chromatography

High-performance thin-layer chromatography

Retention time

Retention factor

Thin-layer chromatography

Variable wavelength detector

Ultraviolet rays

World Health Organization

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Acknowledgements

The authors are very grateful to the Director-General, CCRAS, Ministry of AYUSH, New Delhi, for providing encouragement and facilities for carrying out this work.

Author information

Affiliations

  1. Regional Ayurveda Research Institute, CCRAS, Ministry of AYUSH, Gwalior, , India

    Ajay Kumar Meena & Vandana Bharthi

  2. Captain Srinivasa Murthy Central Ayurveda Research Institute, CCRAS, Chennai, , India

    K. N. Swathi & R. Ilavarasan

  3. Central Council for Research in Ayurvedic Sciences, Ministry of AYUSH, Government of India, New Delhi, , India

    Arjun Singh & N. Srikanth

Contributions

AKM and SKN have performed the experimental work. AKM, RI, NS, and AS worked in experimental design. AKM has written the manuscript, VB also helped in manuscript writing. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Ajay Kumar Meena.

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Meena, A.K., Swathi, K.N., Ilavarasan, R. et al. Qualitative and quantitative estimation of Diosgenin in coded ayurvedic formulation and its ingredient Trigonella foenum-graecum Linn. seeds used in diabetics. Futur J Pharm Sci7, (). https://doi.org//s

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Keywords

  • Trigonella foenum-graecum
  • Coded formulation
  • Antidiabetic
  • Diosgenin
  • Ayurveda
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NOW® Solutions creates face, body, hair, and personal care products for natural self-care routines. Jun 22, · Jul. is located in Lukang Chen, Changhua, Taiwan and is part of the {{industry}} Industry. Buy high quality F1 Tomato Seeds by Plant Agrisupply Seeds Co. FCombo: 2lb Bags (Qty 2) & (Qty 2) Hydroponic Plant Nutrient Complete Combo Set. Zhongshan Road, Meishan Township, Chiayi County, Taiwan. Save up to 60% Discount on all orders & Free Shipping Worldwide. We are the experts in exporting goods from the United States to Australia, Hong Kong, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, the UK, France, Brazil, Canada and just about everywhere in between. The Harris Seeds team includes local growers and garden enthusiasts, whose invaluable knowledge and expertise allow us to better serve you. It can sometimes take the seeds about weeks to germinate - so patience is a virtue with these babies but definitely worth it in the end. BASF reported an increase of 2. In order to allow you to use the services and information of this website with peace of mind, we hereby explain the privacy protection policy of this website to protect your rights and interests. A look back at the edition of The Oriental Seed Company shows a listing for a the Chinese 6 Foot Runner Bean, which is described as "over 6 feet in length and as thin as a lead pencil with no. Watch Video. At NK Seeds, our lineup is packed with the broadest range of leading technologies and fueled by global R&D from Syngenta — but it's inspired by you. We specialize in custom gauges for We are an years-experienced manufacturer of PVC film/sheet company in Taiwan, and has been exporting all over the Spanish Food Prodespa, S. HERMIN Textile is one of the few manufacturers in Taiwan selected as a UMORFIL ® partner to weave this new technology into high-quality and comfortable apparel textiles. Ji Qing Chuan and Liang Yi Xun have been best friends since childhood. Sativa is involved in breeding, maintenance, production and sale of seeds. Taiwan detects people infected with Mu variant despite having 2 doses of Pfizer vaccine News September 5, The patient is a Taiwanese woman who was diagnosed with the Mu…. Almost Eden Plants. Select from the drop-down menu to find a distributor near your location. tainongseeds. Our intensive programs provide startups with seed capital, a specialized global staff of engineers. The total process takes three to four days, says Deanne Ho, the company. ~~~ Yuchi Arrowl. Supplier from Taiwan. When Qing Chuan's family decided to migrate to the United States, Qing Chuan gave Yi Xun a bottle with lavender seeds. , Taitung Papaya Seed Inc. of Employee: 50 Main Product:pet food. 25 inches deep 2 - 4 feet apart 7 - 21 days 70F to 80F Early spring 3 ft. The seeds will be distributed to people in need who cannot afford them. Plants are tall with a concentrated set of fruits and is upright bearing. 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D&B Hoovers provides sales leads and sales intelligence data on over million companies like STAR SEEDS CO. Don't miss our latest offer to get some free seeds from a selection of top breeders in our 5+5 Promo. Early, vigorous, productive, and tolerant to papaya ring spot virus. We have put all efforts into breeding because there is great demand for the type of F1 seeds all over the. com () (no phone orders) Catalog Requests: () The company owns a greenhouse with modern facilities, cool storage room and warehouse in southem Taiwan. Seed Savers Exchange is a tax-exempt (c)3 nonprofit organization dedicated to the preservation of heirloom seeds. We provide Florida-Focused growing instructions & the finest heirloom seeds to empower your green thumb. It is one of the country's major producers of seed. Barrel Head Type. Large fruits with pointed blossom end, weighing around 1. Asian heirloom with a white exterior and pink to red interior. Moisture and Anti-Static Electricity. The plums are dried in an oven overnight. Echeveria. Business Briefing (PDF Pac Choi is harvested as a rosette of tasty leaves with succulent stems. Brands include Horti Long Life Seeds, Gro-Plus plant food range, Hi-Kil Pest Spray range - a convenient ready-to-use spraypack. Antique Rose Emporium. Our company has more than 20 years experience this field got very good reputation from our customer over worldwide. Search on Infobel for other companies in the category Seeds (Production, Wholesale) in Su'ao Township. THE Portal for starting your World Wide Web surfing for orchid related material. The right vegetable varieties can make a big difference in the success of a home vegetable garden. The main field of activity is vegetables, but also produces some herbs and. Our main crops include cucurbit, solanaceae, and crucifer. FCombo: 2lb Bags (Qty 2) & (Qty 2) Hydroponic Plant Nutrient Complete Combo Set. Sativa is involved in breeding, maintenance, production and sale of seeds. Company Name:KNOWN-YOU SEED CO. VDACS encourages anyone who has received unsolicited seeds in the mail that appears to have Chinese origin to contact the Office of Plant Industry Services (OPIS. You read the following carefully: 1. The South African company's partnership with Taiwan will lead to trails of the variety and offer a "viable option to banana growers" to combat the disease. The seed production orders from foreign corporations gradually declined in consequence of the economic growth in Taiwan. Echeveria derenbergii - 20 seeds. Caribbean Garden, TULIPS, DAFFODILS ,CROCUSES ,AND OTHERS FALL BULBS ORDERS, WILL SHIP THIS FALL Call - M-F 8 AM - 4 PM Menu. [citation needed]The headquarters and most production facilities moved from Barmen to a larger area in. The attraction of Demon is its fruit quality, firm, very nice bright red color, and uniform fruits in size and shape. Fennel seed or huí xiāng zǐ (茴香籽) is one of the spices used to make 5 spice powder! We use whole fennel seed in Lanzhou Beef Noodle soup. 0 6 years ago: Pse provide us with samples, packing detail, prices and minimum required order, for hybrid papaya seeds at the following address/3, 29th street, Khayaban-e-Rahat, DHA, Karachi, Pakistan. 3, Fu-nong Rd. hectares of land. TEL:+; FAX:+; ADD:No. Learn more about it here.

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Medicinal Herb Seeds

This is an exciting time of year for the medicinal herb farmer!  Yes, the ground may be frozen and covered in snow but with that brings so much possibility for the growing season to come.  This is the time to plan your gardens while reading through the seed catalogs. When planting medicinal herbs, or weeds, as they are often affectionately called,  it is important to remember that these seeds have not been bred as much as vegetable seeds.  They still retain much of their wild nature in comparison to vegetable seeds which have been selected, bred and hybridized by humans for hundreds or even thousands of years.  Many of the medicinal herb seeds can be treated like vegetable seeds however there are some that need special treatment for successful germination.  Medicinal herbs also have very sporadic growing patterns and often do not follow the rules we want them to.  There are many obstacles that these seeds have faced so they have formed their own way of protecting themselves and their &#;families&#; from huge losses.  Growing weeds is not as easy as one would think!

There is a consensus from many herb growers that it is best to start your plants from seeds as this seems to give the strongest plants and preserves the plants genetic identity.  Tammi Hartung states that, &#;Plants grown from seed generally have very strong survival instincts that help them adapt to tough climates, critter interaction, insect pests, and disease.  However, plants grown from seed occasionally do not develop certain desirable characteristics, such as strong flavor, aroma, and medicinal value, and even cosmetic traits like flower or foliage color.&#;   There are some plants that cannot be grown successfully from seed, these include comfrey and rosemary.  These plants must be grown from cuttings, root division, runner or crown division.  This allows for an identical clone of the mother plant.

Before you decide which herbs you will grow I would recommend that you learn as much as you can about where the plant might grow naturally and check wild-plant identification books as they have information about the plants natural habitat.  To succeed in growing your favorite plants it is key to know their natural preferences.  Researching the treatments needed for the seeds ensures you are prepared for the growing season.  Here in New Brunswick the growing season is relatively short so having seeds properly treated allows them to be planted at the correct time for maximum growing.  Germination methods include:

 

Stratification: In this method we are attempting to break the dormancy of the seed by imitating natural forces that stimulate germination in the wild.  To do this we fluctuate cold/warm temperatures, light, and moisture.  This can be done in a number of ways including planting the seeds in flats, gently watering them and leaving them in an unheated greenhouse for a few weeks before turning the heat on.  An easier way to do this would be to mix the seeds with damp sand or peat moss and putting them in the refrigerator for a few weeks.  By planting them in the greenhouse and allowing them to feel more natural temperature fluctuations plus the increasing sunlight it seems to help break the dormancy faster and more naturally than the refrigerator method.  I have had success with both methods.The seeds will germinate sporadically but eventually they will all wake up.  Examples of seeds that need stratification include:  anise hyssop, catnip, california poppy, echinacea, hyssop, lemon balm, marshmallow, bee balm (monarda), mugwort, motherwort, mullein, stinging nettle, skullcap, vervain, yarrow and others.  

 

Scarification: In this method we are penetrating the seed coat to expose its endosperm by piercing, nicking, or abrading.  This will allow water and air to enter the seed coat and begin to stimulate the process of germination.  This can be done by rubbing the seeds over with medium-grit sandpaper until a little of the endosperm can be seen.  The seed can then be soaked in water or a seaweed solution overnight until they swell, then planted into flats.  In nature, this would occur by a bird or other critter ingesting the seed, their hydrochloric acid would dissolve just enough of the seed coat so when it is excreted the germination process has begun!  Plus they have there own personal fertilizer! Examples of seeds that need scarification include: astragalus,  licorice and most members of the leguminous family.  

Light-Dependent:  Some seeds need to be exposed to light to germinate.  This is the case with a lot of the tiny seeds.  It may be that if they were to germinate too deep into the soil they may not have enough energy to make it to the surface to grow.  To plant these seeds , sow them on the surface the soil, cover them very lightly and then water them with the misting nozzle making sure not to wash the seeds away!  Examples of light dependent germinators:  tobacco, stinging nettle, Saint John&#;s Wort, wormwood, mullein and others.  

Heat Dependent:  Some seeds need the soil to be warm before they will germinate.  Typically these are seeds that are native to tropical climates.  These seeds can be started in flats and put under fluorescent grow lights in a warm room.  Once the greenhouse is warm enough they can be placed in there, close to the heater if possible.  Examples of heat dependent germinators: ashwagandha, gotu kola, stevia, lemon verbana and tulsi.  I also find that ashwagandha is light dependent, I have had the most success by placing it on top of the soil under fluorescent lights while keeping the soil damp.

Direst seeding, much like what is done with veggies, would be a much easier task but the wild plants do not respond well to this method. The exception would be the medicinal cover crops such as oats, red clover, alfalfa and some of the culinary herbs like parsley and cilantro.

Although it may seem intimidating to start plants from seed that does not need to be the case. Do your research, source seeds from a reputable company and then plant them!  If you are looking for some beginner herbs to grow from seed I would recommend calendula, chamomile, borage, oats, nasturtium and valerian.  None of these require any special treatment before planting.

Below are the seed companies I recommend:

Maritimes:

Annapolis Seeds

Incredible Seeds

Ontario:

Richters Herbs

British Columbia:

Salt Springs Seeds

United States:

Strictly Medicinal Seeds

Johnny&#;s Seeds

Fedco Seeds

Image result for quotes about herb gardens

 

Soule, Deb .  How to Move like A Gardener. Rockport, Maine. Under the Willow Press

Carpenter, Jeff & Melanie.  The Organic Medicinal Herb Farmer. White River Junction, VT. Chelsea Green Publishing.   .

Hartung, Tammi. Homegrown Herbs. North Adams, MA. Storey Publishing.

Sours: https://education.bearrootsforest.ca/medicinal-herb-seeds

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Seeds strictly medicinal

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